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Rosh Hashanah 24

1) [line 1] GIREI KA MESHADYA - it (the sun) is about to shoot arrows [against those unbelievers in sun-worship.] Since a bow is held with its points facing the archer, had the rainbow been upside-down, it would seem that some supernal power was aiming arrows at the earth.

2) [line 7] MARDE'OS - plow handles
3) [line 10] ASHASHIS - a [transparent] lantern
4) [line 10] AVIM - clouds
5) [line 16] KOL HACHI CHAZU LAH V'AZLEI? - do they have to see it continuously?
6) [line 17] RE'INUHU ME'ELEINU - we saw it unintentionally
7) [line 19] KUBISA D'EIVA - a small crescent-shaped cloud
8) [line 41] ME'UBAR IN; MEKUDASH LO - the previous month gets an extra day; but the new month is not proclaimed. This proves that the Halachah follows the opinion of Rebbi Eliezer b'Rebbi Tzadok, that the new month is proclaimed only on the 30th day (b'Zemano) and not on the 31st day (she'Lo b'Zemano).

9) [line 43] IFARSEMA - it became publicized
10) [line 44] TAVLA - a tablet
11) [line 46] SHAMASHAI - My heavenly servants or objects used in My service
12) [line 46] HEICHAL - the Sanctuary, inside of which was the Menorah, the Shulchan for the Lechem ha'Panim, and the Mizbe'ach for the Ketores

13) [line 47] ACHSADRAH - usually, an Achsadrah refers to a Greek Achsadrah, which is a covered area that is open on one side. TOSFOS DH Achsadrah suggests that the Ulam had internal walls perpendicular to its doors that gave the entryway the impression of an Achsadrah. It is possible that our Gemara conforms to the definition of a Roman Achsadrah, which is a parlor or a hall for conversations and discussions.

14) [last line] ULAM - the Entrance Hall of the Beis ha'Mikdash (that opened onto the Heichal)


15) [line 5] SHEFUDIN SHEL BARZEL - rods of iron
16) [line 6] CHIFUM B'VA'ATZ - they covered them with tin (O.F. estain - tin)
17) [line 6] HE'ESHIRU - when they became wealthier
18) [line 11] ARBA'AH PANIM - the four faces of the Chayos ha'Kodesh (Holy Beasts) that support the Heavenly Throne. Originally they were the faces of (a) a man; (b) a lion; (c) an ox; (d) an eagle (Yechezkel 1:10). At the time of Yechezkel the face of an ox was substituted with the face of an Cherub (Shach YD 141:4:20, based upon Yechezkel 10:14)

19) [line 15] MI'PIRKEI D'ABAYEI - from the lessons that Abaye taught
20) [line 16] LO SA'ASUN OSI - do not make the form of a person, which is the form with which HaSh-m reveals himself to the prophets, such as in Yechezkel 1:26 (SIFSEI CHACHAMIM)

21a) [line 18] OFANIM - angels that support the Holy Beasts. According to the RAMBAM there are ten levels of angels. The most exalted of the angels are the Chayos and below them are the Ofanim. The angels of the sixth level are called Mal'achim (see Hilchos Yesodei ha'Torah 2:7).
b) [line 19] SERAFIM - fiery angels
c) [line 19] CHAYOS HA'KODESH - see above, entry #18
22) [line 20] MADOR HA'ELYON - the upper abode
23) [line 24] SHILSHUL KATAN - a small worm
24a) [line 26] AFIKIM - (O.F. rivieres) streams
b) [line 27] GE'AYOS - glens, wadis
25) [line 32] SHINENA - well-learned person
26) [line 32] SAMI EINEI D'DEIN - (lit. remove its eye) destroy the form that is on your ring

27) [line 33] CHOSAMO BOLET HAVAH - its seal was protruding
28) [line 34] CHASHADA - suspicion (that it was being worshipped)
29) [line 36] BEI CHENISHTA D'SHAF V'YASIV B'NEHARDA'AH - (a) the Beis ha'Keneses located in Shaf v'Yasiv in the district of Nehardea; (b) the Beis ha'Keneses which was moved from Eretz Yisrael and built in Nehardea; (Yechanyah and the people exiled with him took stones and dirt from Eretz Yisrael and built this Beis ha'Keneses with them; (c) the Beis ha'Keneses that collapsed and was rebuilt a number of times (RASHI Avodah Zarah 43b, Megilah 29a, Rosh ha'Shanah 24b)

30) [line 37] ANDARTA - a statue of the king
31) [line 39] D'FERAKIM HAVAH - it was made out of detachable parts
32) [line 40] L'HISLAMED AVAD - it was made for educational purposes

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