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Rosh Hashanah 23

1) [line 8] ISNUSEI HU D'ISNUSEI - [was simply because] they were unable [to light the fires] due to an accident

2) [line 13] IDRA - probably the Spanish Juniper
3) [line 14] MAVLIGA - a resinous tree
4) [line 14] GULMISH - the cypress tree (cupressus sempervirens)
5) [line 16] ASARAH MINEI ARAZIM HEN - there are ten types of trees that are called Erez. (These trees are similar to a cedar tree in that the central trunk grows straight, the branches spread out without bending, and the leaves point upwards. As such, the cedar is a symbol of pride and haughtiness -- Ta'anis 20a and elsewhere)

6) [line 19] ARZA - a cedar tree
7) [line 19] TURNISA - (O.F. pin) the pine tree
8) [line 19] ASA - a myrtle
9) [line 20] AFARSEMA - the balsam tree
10) [line 20] BERATA - (a) (O.F. buis) the box-wood tree (RASHI here and to Shabbos 129a, citing RABEINU HA'LEVI); (b) a type of cedar tree (RASHI Shabbos 129a)

11) [line 20] SHA'AGA - (O.F. sap) the fir-tree
12) [line 21] SHURIVNA - either the ebony, the box-wood or the cypress tree
13) [line 23] BUTMEI - (O.F. olme) the elm tree
14) [line 23] BELUTEI - (O.F. chesne) the oak tree [that produces acorns (O.F. glant)]
15) [line 24] KASITA - (O.F. coral) coral, a hard red, pink, or white substance that is built by tiny sea creatures

16) [line 25] AREI - (O.F. lor) laurel [that produces berries, fruit of the laurel (O.F. baies)]

17) [line 25] DULVEI - (O.F. chastenier) the chestnut tree
18) [line 25] "[KI IM SHAM ADIR HASH-M LANU MEKOM NEHARIM YE'ORIM RACHAVEI YADAYIM; BAL TELECH BO ONI SHAYIT,] V'TZI ADIR LO YA'AVRENU." - "[But there HaSh-m in his majesty will be for us a place of broad rivers and streams, where no galley with oars can go,] neither shall large ships be able to pass by it." (Yeshayah 33:21)

19) [line 26] BURNI GEDOLAH - a large ship (O.F. dromont - a type of ship)
20) [line 26] HEICHI AVDU? - what was such a large ship used for?
21) [line 29] TA'ANI LAHO CHALA - they filled it up with sand
22) [line 29] AD D'SHECHNA - until it sinks
23) [line 29] V'NACHIS BAR AMORA'EI - and divers dive down
24) [line 30] V'KATAR ATUNEI D'CHISNA - and tie ropes of flax [to the base of the coral]

25) [line 31] V'SHADU L'VARA'I - and they throw off the sand
26) [line 32] V'CHAMAH D'MIDALYA AKARA U'MESAYA - and as it (the boat) ascends, it (the coral) is uprooted and brought up

27) [line 33] PARVASA - ports (O.F. port)
28) [line 35] MARGENAISA - pearls or jewels
29) [line 35] U'MIKARYA PARVASA D'MESHAMHIG - and it is called the port of Mashmahig, which means the port of kings, a place on an island in the Persian Gulf, mentioned for its pearl fisheries

30) [line 46] REBBI AKIVA - in the verse before the verse, "Tachas ha'Nechoshes Avi Zahav..." (Yeshayah 60:17) the last two words are "Avir Yakov" (ibid. 60:16), which contain the letters of "Rebbi Akiva" (CHASAM SOFER, citing the Ari Zal)

31) [line 46] "V'NIKEISI DAMAM LO NIKEISI..." - "Though I cleanse, their bloodshed I shall not cleanse..." (Yoel 4:21)


32) [line 1] BIRAM - Biram, between Syria and Mesopotamia
33) [line 4] AF CHARIM V'KAYAR - (a) names of high places where torches were also lit; (b) according to the Girsa of the Vilna Ga'on, AF *HAREI MICHVAR* - the mountains of the area of Michvar. Michvar is the mountainous area to the east of the Dead Sea that rises to a height of 700 meters above sea level, from where it is possible to see Yerushalayim and Chevron. According to Targum Yonasan Ben Uziel and Targum Yerushalmi, Michvar is Ya'azer, mentioned in Bamidbar 21:32, 32:1, which was in the portion of Gad. At the time of the second Beis ha'Mikdash, it was very important strategically, serving to protect the land of Judea, of which it was a part, from the Nabateans to the south and from invaders from the east. Alexander Yanai built a fortress there, which was later fortified by Herod. The defenders of Yerushalayim fled there after the destruction of the Beis ha'Mikdash, but were all massacred by the Romans. After the destruction of Yerushalayim, when the center of the Jewish population moved northwards to the Galil, the concentration of the Jewish settlement to the east of the Jordan River also moved northwards to the Galil.

34) [line 4] GEDER - (a) a city in the Galilee not far from Teveryah (Megilah 2b), on the slope of a mountain above the city of Chamesan, which contained an area of hot springs (Shabbos 109a); (b) Alternatively, Chamas Gader, an ancient city near the Kineret, which contains hot springs and lies below the Jordanian city of Ummqeis, which is reputed to be the biblical "Gadara."

35) [line 5] L'HACH GISA D'ERETZ YISRAEL - (lit. on the other side of Eretz Yisrael) on another route from Eretz Yisrael to Bavel

36) [line 10] ISTATUMEI ISTATUM LEHU DARKEI - many of the main roads were blocked, necessitating a circuitous route

37) [line 11] "LACHEN HINENI SACH ES DARKECH BA'SIRIM, [V'GADARTI ES GEDERAH U'NESIVOSEHA LO SIMTZA.]" - "Therefore I will hedge your route with thorns, [and I will hem her in with a fence, and she will not find her paths.]" (Hoshea 2:8)

38) [line 12] "[GADAR DERACHAI B'GAZIS,] NESIVOSAI IVAH." - "[He has walled up my roads with hewn stones;] He distorted my paths. (Eichah 3:9)

39) [line 19] CHACHAMAH - a midwife
40) [line 21] GAYAS - marauding troops
41) [line 21] MAPOLES - an avalanche or a structure that collapsed
42) [line 24] LISHNA MA'ALYA HU - a term with a positive connotation
43) [line 26] "...V'HU ASUR BA'ZIKIM..." - "...and he was bound in chains..." (Yirmeyah 40:1)

44a) [line 33] LIFNEI HA'CHAMAH - according to the conclusion of the Gemara, this means, "Did the Pegimah (the "flaw," or missing part of the moon) face the sun that has recently set?" i.e. did the points of the crescent face towards the sun?
b) [line 33] L'ACHAR HA'CHAMAH - according to the conclusion of the Gemara, this means, "Did the Pegimah (the "flaw," or missing part of the moon) face *away from* the sun that has recently set?" i.e. did the points of the crescent face away from the sun?

45) [line 34] UL'AYIN HAYAH NOTEH - according to the Gemara (24a), this means, "Did the moon rise to the north or to the south of the location of sunset?

46) [line 40] SHE'LO YEITZ'U B'FACHEI NEFESH - so that they should not become discouraged

47) [line 44] "HAMSHEL VA'FACHAD IMO; OSEH SHALOM BI'MROMAV." - "Dominion and dread are with Him; He makes peace in His heights." (Iyov 25:2)

48) [line 45] V'LO PEGIMASAH SHEL KESHES - and not the Pegimah (the "flaw," or missing part) of the rainbow, i.e. the bases of the rainbow are on the ground and not in the air

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