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Rosh Hashanah 22

ROSH HASHANAH 21 & 22 (12,13 Av) - dedicated by Rabbi Kornfeld's grandmother, Mrs. G. Turkel, to the memory of her husband, Reb Yisrael Shimon (Isi) ha'Levi Turkel, who loved Torah and worked to support Torah until his last breath. He passed away on 10 Av 5780.

1) [line 26] HA'PESULIM - the people who are disqualified to judge or to give testimony

2a) [line 26] HA'MESACHEK B'KUVYA - a person who gambles with dice (or other forms of gambling -- RAMBAM Hilchos Edus 10:4) as his only livelihood
b) [line 27] MAFRICHEI YONIM - a person who races pigeons (or any other animal -- RAMBAM ibid.) as his only livelihood

3) [line 27] SOCHAREI SHEVI'IS
(a) The Torah requires that farmers desist from working the land every seventh year, as described in Vayikra 25:1-7. The fruits that grow during the seventh (Shevi'is) year are holy to the extent that 1. they must be considered ownerless; anyone may come into any field and pick the fruit that he intends to eat. 2. The fruits may not be bought and sold in a normal fashion (see Insights to Sukah 39:2). 3. The Torah requires that the fruits of Shevi'is be used only for eating or drinking (in the normal manner of eating for that type of fruit) or for burning to provide light (in the case of oil). They may not be wasted or used for medicinal purposes or animal fodder, etc.
(b) According to the Ramban, people who buy and sell produce of Shevi'is transgress the Mitzvas Aseh of "l'Ochlah" -- one must eat the fruit, as opposed to bartering or selling it (RAMBAN, Mitzvos added to the Sefer ha'Mitzvos of the Rambam, third Mitzvah). The money with which the produce is bought becomes Kadosh with Kedushas Shevi'is and must be used to buy foods that will be treated in the above manner.

4) [line 31] EDUS ISHAH (testimony to permit a widow to remarry) Although the Torah normally requires two male witnesses in order to confirm a fact through testimony, the Rabanan allowed a woman to remarry based on the testimony of even a single witness who testifies that her husband has died, even if the witness is a woman or a slave.

5) [line 34] V'IM TZODEH LAHEM - and if there is an ambush of Minim (heretics) or Baisusim lying in wait for them

*6*) [line 36] SHE'AL MAHALACH LAILAH V'YOM - that is, *and* for a distance that can be walked in one night and one day


7) [line 43] BAISUSIM
The Tzedukim and Beisusim were students of Tzadok and Beisos who rejected the Oral Torah (Avos d'Rebbi Nasan 5:2).


*8*) [line 13] IY HACHI, MAI L'MEIMRA - that is, there is no question that a witness should be permitted to be Mechalel Shabbos to testify even though he is not certain that he will find a second witness. If it were not permitted, it would *never* be permissible to be Mechalel Shabbos, since a witness can never know *for sure* that the court will accept his testimony (TOSFOS).

9) [line 29] MA'ALEH ADUMIM - the road that ascends from the plains of Yericho to Yerushalayim, roughly in the location of the present-day road

10) [line 29] RAVUTZ - crouching
11) [line 31] NIRTA'TI - and I became startled; and I fainted
12) [line 32] MI HIZKIKECHA L'CHACH? - why did you agree to do this?
13) [line 35] YIMATACH AL HA'AMUD - (lit. should be tied to the whipping post) deserve to receive Makas Mardus (Rabbinic lashes)

14) [line 36] MASI'IN MASU'OS - messengers lifted lighted torches on the peaks of mountains between Yerushalayim and Bavel to notify Benei Yisrael of the proclamation of the new month

15) [line 36] MISHE'KILKELU HA'KUSIM - after the Kusim sabotaged this arrangement by lighting fires even when the new month had not been proclaimed

16) [line 38] KELUNSA'OS SHEL EREZ - poles of cedar wood (O.F. perches - poles)

17) [line 38] ATZEI SHEMEN - (a) wood of the balsam tree (GEMARA here and Bava Basra 80b); (b) wood of the pine tree (RALBAG to Melachim I 6:23, MEIRI Avodah Zarah 13b, RADAK to Yeshayah 41:19)

18) [line 38] NE'ORES SHEL PISHTAN - the coarse, broken fibers of flax that are separated after having been thoroughly beaten

19) [line 39] MESHICHAH - (O.F. linoel) linen thread, string
20) [line 39] U'MATZIS BAHEN ES HA'UR - he sets fire to them
21) [line 41] HAR HA'MISHCHAH - the Mount of Olives to the east of Yerushalayim
22) [line 41] SARTAVA - a mountain in the Jordan valley
23) [line 42] GEROFINA - probably a tower or height enlarged by Agrippa II near Ceasarea Philippi (the modern-day Banias in northern Israel)

24) [line 42] CHAVRAN - also Auran, a mountain located in the country east of the Jordan River named Aurantis

25) [line 42] BEIS BALTIN - Biram, between Syria and Mesopotamia
27) [line 44] LISHNA D'YAKUD - a term for kindling, burning
28) [line 45] "[VA'YA'AZVU SHAM ES ATZABEIHEM,] VA'YISA'EM DAVID [VA'ANASHAV.]" - "[And they (the Pelishtim) left their idols there,] and David [and his men] burned them." (Shmuel II 5:21)

29) [line 46] L'OR IBURO - on the night between the 30th and 31st day from the start of the previous month

30) [last line] AFUKEI SHABATA - (lit. Motza'ei Shabbos) Saturday night

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