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Rosh Hashanah 18

ROSH HASHANAH 17 & 18 (8, 9 Av) - these Dafim have been dedicated by Rabbi Eli Turkel of Ra'anana, Israel, to the memory of his father, Reb Yisrael Shimon ben Shlomo ha'Levi Turkel (Yarhzeit: 10 Av).

1) [line 4] GARDOM - [Roman] executioner's scaffold
2) [line 15] "KABSI ME'RA'AH LIBECH [YERUSHALAYIM L'MA'AN TIVASHE'I...]" - "Cleanse your heart from evil, [O Yerushalayim, so that you may be saved...]" (Yirmeyah 4:14)

3) [line 15] "KI IM TECHABSI BA'NESER, V'SARBI LACH BORIS, NICHTAM AVONECH LEFANAI..." - "Even if you were to wash with niter and use much soap, your iniquity has become a stain before Me" (Yirmeyah 2:22)

4) [line 34] "...V'CHOL MARBIS BEISCHA YAMUSU ANASHIM." - "...and all those raised in your house will die as [young] men." (Shmuel I 2:33)

5) [line 40] VA'YEHI KA'ASERES HA'YAMIM; VA'YIGOF HASH-M ES NAVAL [VA'YAMOS]" - "It happened after ten days that HaSh-m struck Naval [and he died.]" (Shmuel I 25:38) - Naval and his shepherds had been protected by David and his soldiers. Some time later, when David had to flee from the pursuit of King Shaul, he sent messengers to Naval to ask for provisions. Although he fed the ten messengers, he refused to provide for David and his army. Besides repaying good with bad, this was an act of treason, since the prophet Shmuel had already anointed David king. David was about to have Naval and his entire household executed, but Naval's wife Avigayil proved that only Naval was guilty. She personally brought David the provisions that he needed. When Avigayil told Naval of her actions, he fell faint. Ten days later, he died after being struck by a plague of HaSh-m.

6) [line 42] LEGIMOS - meals
7) [line 44] BENEI IMRANA - young sheep
8) [line 45] MA'ALOS BEIS MARON - the ascent of Beis Maron, which was a narrow path up a very steep slope, on which people could only walk single file

9) [line 46] V'CHULAN NISKARIN - and everyone is surveyed; [their actions] are scrutinized

10) [line 48] D'BARNAHU L'CHULEI ALMA - that He created all the people of the world


11) [line 13] BEITAR - a town to the southwest of Yerushalayim, renowned as the center of the Bar Kochva rebellion

12) [line 35] MEGILAS TA'ANIS
(a) Megilas Ta'anis was written in the times of the Tana'im, at the end of the period of the second Beis ha'Mikdash. It includes a list of the dates that were set aside as holidays due to the miracles that happened on them to Benei Yisrael. On some of the dates, fasting was forbidden. On others, even delivering a eulogy was included in the Rabbinic prohibition. On some of them, fasting or delivering a eulogy was forbidden on the preceding or following day as well. The Megilah was written in order that these dates not be forgotten.
(b) After the destruction of the second Beis ha'Mikdash, the holidays of Megilas Ta'anis were no longer observed, except for the holidays of Chanukah and Purim (Gemara Rosh ha'Shanah 19b). The Gemara explains that we experience Divine help so frequently when under the rule of the nations, that we cannot even begin to celebrate the days in which a salvation occurs (Shabbos 13b).

13) [line 41] V'SIPER - and cut his hair
14) [line 42] D'IKA MITZVAH - there is the Mitzvah of lighting Chanukah candles (RABBEINU CHANANEL)

15) [line 44] BETEILAS ADKARTA MIN SHETARAYA - the decree [of the Chashmona'i kings] to mention HaSh-m's name in business documents was annulled

*16*) [line 48] U'VITLUM, V'OSO HA'YOM ASA'UHU YOM TOV - (at this point, the Gemara thinks that this occurred *after* the Churban)

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