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1) [line 1] METZAFTZEFIN - and they cry out [from the pain of Gehinom]
3) [line 5] "VA'YA'AL" - "and raises up"
6) [line 12] "V'ASOSEM RESHA'IM KI YIHEYU EFER TACHAS KAPOS RAGLEICHEM..." - "And you will trample the wicked, for they will be ashes under the soles of your feet..." (Malachi 3:21)
7a) [line 14] MININ - heretics, people who falsify the Scriptures
8) [line 17] YERAV'AM BEN NEVAT - Yerav'am Ben Nevat was the first king of the ten tribes of Yisrael after their secession from the kingdom of the Davidic dynasty (subsequently known as Yehudah), as recorded in Melachim I 11:26-12:20. Upon Shlomo ha'Melech's death, Rechav'am, his son, took the counsel of his young advisors to increase the high tax and hard labor that Shlomo had instituted (Melachim I 12:14). As a result, the people rebelled under the leadership of Yerav'am ben Nevat of the tribe of Efrayim. In order to prevent the people of the ten tribes from returning to the leadership of the Davidic kings, Yerav'am outlawed the Mitzvah of Aliyah l'Regel (traveling to the Beis ha'Mikdash for Pesach, Shavu'os and Sukos). Instead, he set up two golden calves (ibid. I 12:28), one in Beis El and one in Dan, and proclaimed that they should be served.
9) [line 19] "V'YATZ'U V'RA'U..." - "And they shall go forth, and look upon the carcasses of the men that have rebelled against Me; [for their worm shall not die, neither shall their fire be quenched; and they shall be an abhorrence to all flesh.]" (Yeshayah 66:24)
10) [line 21, 23] "[KA'TZON LI'SH'OL SHATU, MAVES YIR'EM, VA'YIRDU VAM YESHARIM LA'BOKER], V'TZURAM L'VALOS SHE'OL MI'ZEVUL LO." - "[Because of their own sins, they are like sheep placed in the Netherworld. Death shall consume them, and the upright shall dominate them at daybreak.] Their form is doomed to rot in the grave, each from his lodging." (Tehilim 49:15) - The Gemara interprets the end of this verse to mean, "Their form [shall exist, enduring punishment, even when] the Netherworld erodes to nothingness, because of their contribution to the destruction of the Beis ha'Mikdash due to their sins."
11) [line 22] PASHTU YEDEIHEM BI'ZEVUL - they destroyed (lit. they thrust their hands our against) the Beis ha'Mikdash because of their sins
12a) [line 25] "HASH-M YECHATU MERIVAV, [ALAV BA'SHAMAYIM YAR'EM HASH-M
YADIN AFSEI ARETZ; V'YITEN OZ L'MALKO V'YAREM KEREN MESHICHO.]" - "HaSh-m --
- may those that contend with Him be shattered, let the heavens thunder
against them. May HaSh-m judge to the ends of the earth; may He give power
to his king and raise the pride of His anointed one." (Shmuel I 2:10)
13) [line 26] SHULEI KEDEIRAH - the [blackened] underside of a pot
15) [line 28] U'MIKARYAN BENEI GEHINOM - and they will be called "the inhabitants of Gehinom"
16) [line 39] SHE'DALAH ANI - that I am poor
21a) [line 46] KOVSHO - He presses down the side of the scale that holds the
22) [line 47] V'CHEN HI HA'MIDAH - and this is the explanation of the Midah, "v'Rav Chesed," one of the thirteen attributes of Divine mercy
23) [line 48] HA'MA'AVIR AL MIDOSAV - (a) one who does not mete out judgement to people who mistreat him (RASHI); (b) one who forgoes his honor when he is slighted (Yoma 23a)
24) [line 50] CHALASH - became sick
28) [line 51] ITPACH - he recuperated
30) [line 51] IN, HACHI HAVAH - yes, that is was happened; it was decreed that I should die
31) [line 52] V'LO MUKIM B'MILEI - he [forgives and] does not stand firm when he is mistreated
32) [line 52] LO SAKUMU BA'HADEI - do not be stringent with him
34) [line 1] L'MI SHE'MESIM ATZMO K'SHIRAYIM - for a person who considers himself superfluous, unnecessary; i.e. for a humble person
35) [line 19] "HASHMEN LEV HA'AM HA'ZEH, V'OZNAV HACHBED, V'EINAV HASHA; PEN YIR'EH V'EINAV UV'OZNAV YISHMA U'LVAVO YAVIN VA'SHAV V'RAFA LO." - "This people is fattening its heart, hardening it ears, and sealing its eyes, lest it see with its eyes, hear with its ears and understand with its heart, so that it will repent and be healed." (Yeshayah 6:10)
36) [line 22] EILEI NEVAYOS - the rams from Nevayos, an Arab settlement (see Bereishis 25:13) to the south-east of Israel; Nabateans
37) [line 30] V'LOSIF LEHU - and increase the amount of rain that they should get!?
38) [line 32] "YACHOGU V'YANU'U KA'SHIKOR; V'CHOL CHOCHMASAM TISBALA." - "They reel and they stagger like a drunkard, and all of their wisdom is swallowed up." (Tehilim 107:27) - This verse describes a very rough sea voyage in which the boat almost capsizes and everyone almost drowns.
39) [line 32] "VA'YITZ'AKU EL HASH-M BA'TZAR LAHEM, [UMI'METZUKOSEIHEM YOTZI'EM]" - "They cried out to HaSh-m in their distress, [and He took them out of their straits.]" (Tehilim 107:28)
40) [line 33] SIMANIYOS - upside letters "Nun" (which are found in this chapter of Tehilim before verses 23-28, 40)
41) [line 33] K'ACHIN V'RAKIN SHEBA'TORAH - [these symbols] are like the words "Ach" (but) and "Rak" (only) in the Torah, and they are placed here to qualify these verses
42) [line 36] NITPAL LAH... - Rebbi Yosi ha'Kohen attended to her [question]