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Rosh Hashanah 17

ROSH HASHANAH 17 & 18 (8, 9 Av) - these Dafim have been dedicated by Rabbi Eli Turkel of Ra'anana, Israel, to the memory of his father, Reb Yisrael Shimon ben Shlomo ha'Levi Turkel (Yarhzeit: 10 Av).

1) [line 1] METZAFTZEFIN - and they cry out [from the pain of Gehinom]
2) [line 1] "V'HAYAH V'CHOL HA'ARETZ...PI SHENAYIM BAH YIKARSU YIGVA'U, VEHA'SHELISHIS YIVASER BAH.] V'HEVEISI ES HA'SHELISHIS BA'ESH, U'TZRAFTIM KI'TZROF ES HA'KESEF, U'VCHANTIM KI'VCHON ES HA'ZAHAV; HU YIKRA VI'SHMI VA'ANI E'ENEH OSO..." - "[And there will be in all the land ... two portions [of the population] that will be cut off and will perish, and one third will be left in it.] I will bring that third into fire and purify it as one purifies silver, and I will refine it as one refines gold; it will call out in My Name, and I will answer it..." (Zecharyah 13:8-9)

3) [line 5] "VA'YA'AL" - "and raises up"
4) [line 8] "DALOSI" - "I was brought low"
5) [line 8] POSH'EI YISRA'EL B'GUFAN - Jews who willingly sin with their bodies (a) by not putting on Tefilin (TOSFOS, ROSH); (b) by never putting on Tefilin (RABEINU CHANANEL, RIF); (c) by not putting on Tefilin (or not doing any other Mitzvah -- RAMA' MI'FANO, cited by the KORBAN NESANEL 5:10) because he loathes the Mitzvah (RABEINU TAM)

6) [line 12] "V'ASOSEM RESHA'IM KI YIHEYU EFER TACHAS KAPOS RAGLEICHEM..." - "And you will trample the wicked, for they will be ashes under the soles of your feet..." (Malachi 3:21)

7a) [line 14] MININ - heretics, people who falsify the Scriptures
b) [line 14] MASOROS - slanderers who cause the authorities to unjustly take away people's money
c) [line 14] APIKORSIM - people who disgrace Torah scholars
d) [line 16] SHE'NASNU CHITISAM B'ERETZ CHAYIM - community leaders who, for their own benefit, instill trepidation into the people

8) [line 17] YERAV'AM BEN NEVAT - Yerav'am Ben Nevat was the first king of the ten tribes of Yisrael after their secession from the kingdom of the Davidic dynasty (subsequently known as Yehudah), as recorded in Melachim I 11:26-12:20. Upon Shlomo ha'Melech's death, Rechav'am, his son, took the counsel of his young advisors to increase the high tax and hard labor that Shlomo had instituted (Melachim I 12:14). As a result, the people rebelled under the leadership of Yerav'am ben Nevat of the tribe of Efrayim. In order to prevent the people of the ten tribes from returning to the leadership of the Davidic kings, Yerav'am outlawed the Mitzvah of Aliyah l'Regel (traveling to the Beis ha'Mikdash for Pesach, Shavu'os and Sukos). Instead, he set up two golden calves (ibid. I 12:28), one in Beis El and one in Dan, and proclaimed that they should be served.

9) [line 19] "V'YATZ'U V'RA'U..." - "And they shall go forth, and look upon the carcasses of the men that have rebelled against Me; [for their worm shall not die, neither shall their fire be quenched; and they shall be an abhorrence to all flesh.]" (Yeshayah 66:24)

10) [line 21, 23] "[KA'TZON LI'SH'OL SHATU, MAVES YIR'EM, VA'YIRDU VAM YESHARIM LA'BOKER], V'TZURAM L'VALOS SHE'OL MI'ZEVUL LO." - "[Because of their own sins, they are like sheep placed in the Netherworld. Death shall consume them, and the upright shall dominate them at daybreak.] Their form is doomed to rot in the grave, each from his lodging." (Tehilim 49:15) - The Gemara interprets the end of this verse to mean, "Their form [shall exist, enduring punishment, even when] the Netherworld erodes to nothingness, because of their contribution to the destruction of the Beis ha'Mikdash due to their sins."

11) [line 22] PASHTU YEDEIHEM BI'ZEVUL - they destroyed (lit. they thrust their hands our against) the Beis ha'Mikdash because of their sins

12a) [line 25] "HASH-M YECHATU MERIVAV, [ALAV BA'SHAMAYIM YAR'EM HASH-M YADIN AFSEI ARETZ; V'YITEN OZ L'MALKO V'YAREM KEREN MESHICHO.]" - "HaSh-m -- - may those that contend with Him be shattered, let the heavens thunder against them. May HaSh-m judge to the ends of the earth; may He give power to his king and raise the pride of His anointed one." (Shmuel I 2:10)
b) [line 25] VA'ALEIHEM AMRAH CHANAH HASH-M YECHATU MERIVAV... - (The Girsa in Dikdukei Sofrim #80 is *AMAR MAR* VA'ALEIHEM AMRAH CHANAH *HASH-M MEMIS U'MECHAYEH, MORID SHE'OL VA'YA'AL.* (Shmuel I 2:6) Accordingly, this is the beginning of the explanation of the Beraisa by the Amora'im, starting with the last statement of Beis Shamai from line 4, above. The words of Rebbi Yitzchak bar Avin and Rava are referring to *Beinoniyim*.)

13) [line 26] SHULEI KEDEIRAH - the [blackened] underside of a pot
14) [line 27] MI'SHAPIREI SHAPIREI BENEI MECHUZA - from the good looking, fattened, self-indulgent people of Mechuza, a large Jewish trading town on the Tigris River

15) [line 28] U'MIKARYAN BENEI GEHINOM - and they will be called "the inhabitants of Gehinom"

16) [line 39] SHE'DALAH ANI - that I am poor
17) [line 40] KARKAFTA - a head
18) [line 41] AVEIRAH - forbidden relations
19) [line 42] PARNAS - a community leader
20) [line 44] "LACHEN YERE'UHU ANASHIM; LO YIR'EH KOL CHACHMEI LEV." - "Therefore people fear Him --- for He is not impressed with those who are wise of heart" (Iyov 37:24) - The Gemara interprets this verse allegorically to mean, "Because he causes people to fear him, he will not see any [sons who are] wise of heart."

21a) [line 46] KOVSHO - He presses down the side of the scale that holds the merits
b) [line 46] NOSEI - He lifts up the side of the scale that holds the sins
c) [line 47] MA'AVIR RISHON RISHON - the first sin that is meant to be placed upon the scale is held back and never placed upon the scale (RASHI, as explained by KORBAN NESANEL 5:60)

22) [line 47] V'CHEN HI HA'MIDAH - and this is the explanation of the Midah, "v'Rav Chesed," one of the thirteen attributes of Divine mercy

23) [line 48] HA'MA'AVIR AL MIDOSAV - (a) one who does not mete out judgement to people who mistreat him (RASHI); (b) one who forgoes his honor when he is slighted (Yoma 23a)

24) [line 50] CHALASH - became sick
25) [line 50] L'SHIYULEI VEI - to visit him
26) [line 50] D'CHALISH LEI ALMA - that he was very sick and was about to die
27) [line 51] TZEVISU LEI ZAVDASA - (lit. pack provisions for him) prepare his burial shrouds

28) [line 51] ITPACH - he recuperated
29) [line 51] HAVAH MICHSIF - he (Rav Papa) was embarrassed [to be seen by him] (The Dikdukei Sofrim #80 deletes the words, "AMAR LEI, MAI CHAZIS?")

30) [line 51] IN, HACHI HAVAH - yes, that is was happened; it was decreed that I should die

31) [line 52] V'LO MUKIM B'MILEI - he [forgives and] does not stand firm when he is mistreated

32) [line 52] LO SAKUMU BA'HADEI - do not be stringent with him
33) [last line] ALYAH V'KOTZ BAH - (lit. it is a fatty tail with a thorn inside) the words, "li'Sh'eris Nachalaso," are an incomplete consolation


34) [line 1] L'MI SHE'MESIM ATZMO K'SHIRAYIM - for a person who considers himself superfluous, unnecessary; i.e. for a humble person

35) [line 19] "HASHMEN LEV HA'AM HA'ZEH, V'OZNAV HACHBED, V'EINAV HASHA; PEN YIR'EH V'EINAV UV'OZNAV YISHMA U'LVAVO YAVIN VA'SHAV V'RAFA LO." - "This people is fattening its heart, hardening it ears, and sealing its eyes, lest it see with its eyes, hear with its ears and understand with its heart, so that it will repent and be healed." (Yeshayah 6:10)

36) [line 22] EILEI NEVAYOS - the rams from Nevayos, an Arab settlement (see Bereishis 25:13) to the south-east of Israel; Nabateans

37) [line 30] V'LOSIF LEHU - and increase the amount of rain that they should get!?

38) [line 32] "YACHOGU V'YANU'U KA'SHIKOR; V'CHOL CHOCHMASAM TISBALA." - "They reel and they stagger like a drunkard, and all of their wisdom is swallowed up." (Tehilim 107:27) - This verse describes a very rough sea voyage in which the boat almost capsizes and everyone almost drowns.

39) [line 32] "VA'YITZ'AKU EL HASH-M BA'TZAR LAHEM, [UMI'METZUKOSEIHEM YOTZI'EM]" - "They cried out to HaSh-m in their distress, [and He took them out of their straits.]" (Tehilim 107:28)

40) [line 33] SIMANIYOS - upside letters "Nun" (which are found in this chapter of Tehilim before verses 23-28, 40)

41) [line 33] K'ACHIN V'RAKIN SHEBA'TORAH - [these symbols] are like the words "Ach" (but) and "Rak" (only) in the Torah, and they are placed here to qualify these verses

42) [line 36] NITPAL LAH... - Rebbi Yosi ha'Kohen attended to her [question]
43) [line 37] SHE'NOSHEH B'CHAVEIRO MANEH - who is owed a Manah (100 Zuz) as repayment for a loan

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