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Rosh Hashanah 15

ROSH HASHANAH 12, 13, 14, 15 (3-6 Menachem Av) - dedicated by the wife and daughters of the late Dr. Simcha Bekelnitzky (Simcha Gedalya ben Shraga Feibush) of Queens N.Y. on his upcoming second Yarzeit (7 Av). Well known in the community for his Chesed and Tzedakah, he will be remembered by all who knew him.

*1*) [line 6] D'KATANI "IM HAYSAH SHENIYAH NICHNESES LI'SHELISHIS" - the Beraisa earlier in the Perek (top of 12b) chose to present an example vegetables picked in two years when the first was picked in the *second* year and the next one was picked in the *third* year.

2) [line 8] KASHYA LEI YADA - excessive handling is detrimental to the Esrog tree
3a) [line 12] SHEVAT D'CHODASHIM - the lunar month of Shevat
b) [line 13] SHEVAT D'TEKUFAH - the "solar" month of Shevat, which starts thirty days after the winter solstice

4) [line 18] BI'UR (Some laws of Shemitah)
(a) The Torah requires that farmers desist from working the land every seventh year, as described in Vayikra 25:1-7. The fruits that grow during the seventh (Shevi'is) year are holy to the extent that 1. they must be considered ownerless; anyone may come into any field and pick the fruit that he intends to eat. 2. The fruits may not be bought and sold in a normal fashion (see Insights to Sukah 39:2). 3. The Torah requires that the fruits of Shevi'is be used only for eating or drinking (in the normal manner of eating for that type of fruit) or for burning to provide light (in the case of oil). They may not be wasted or used for medicinal purposes or animal fodder, etc.
(b) In addition, when each type of produce is no longer available in the fields, there is an obligation to perform Bi'ur on it and on all of the items for which it was exchanged (Pesachim 52a). The Rishonim argue with regard to the definition of Bi'ur.

1. The Ramban (to Vayikra 25:7) writes that one is obligated to remove the items from his house and *declare them Hefker (ownerless)* such that they may be taken by any passerby. (One may later reacquire ownership of the produce.) If Bi'ur was not done at the right time, the produce becomes Asur b'Hana'ah mid'Rabanan.
2. According to the Rambam (Hilchos Shemitah 7:3), Bi'ur means to destroy the produce completely. At the time that it is no longer available in the fields, eating it becomes prohibited.
3. The Ra'avad (ibid.) rules that there are two types of Bi'ur. At the time that an item of produce becomes unavailable in the fields *in a certain place*, one must declare it Hefker (like the opinion of the Ramban). At the time that it becomes unavailable *in all of Eretz Yisrael*, one must destroy the produce completely (like the opinion of the Rambam).
5) [line 39] USHA - a city in the Galil, which was one of the ten places to which the Sanhedrin was exiled


*6*) [line 1] ACHAR LEKITASO L'MA'ASER - that is, when an Esrog is picked in a *non-Shevi'is* year, the type of Ma'aser that is separated from it is determined by when it is picked. (RASHI)

7) [line 13] BEREICHOS - (lit. broods) the Gemara qualifies the usage of this term; the intended meaning is, "crops"

*8*) [line 18] NAHAGU HA'AM B'CHARUVIN - the accepted practice regarding Carob trees (and any other tree that produces its crop at a single time during the year - TOSFOS)

9) [line 19] BENOS SHU'ACH - a species of inferior white figs, the trees of which produce fruits over a 3-year period

*10*) [line 19] BENOS SHU'ACH, SHEVI'IS SHELAHEN SHENIYAH - The figs of the Benos Shu'ach trees that grow in the second year after Shemitah are treated as Shemitah produce. (Although Benos Shu'ach is a type of fig, unlike other figs it ripens all at once, and its crop comes in a single "Bereichah."

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