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Previous dafRosh Hashanah 14
ROSH HASHANAH 12, 13, 14, 15 (3-6 Menachem Av) - dedicated by the wife and
daughters of the late Dr. Simcha Bekelnitzky (Simcha Gedalya ben Shraga
Feibush) of Queens N.Y. on his upcoming second Yarzeit (7 Av). Well known in
the community for his Chesed and Tzedakah, he will be remembered by all who
1) [line 23] BETZALIM HA'SARISIN - (O.F. civot) cibols (a type of small-
bulbed onion cultivated in various parts of Europe)
2) [line 24] POL HA'MITZRI - (a) the Egyptian bean (colocasia); (b) (O.F.
feisol) the haricot bean
3) [line 6] UL'REVA'I (NETA REVA'I)
(a) In the first three years after a tree is planted, its fruits are called
Orlah and are Asurim b'Hana'ah, as it states in Vayikra 19:23. The fruits of
the fourth year are called Neta Reva'i and are Kodesh (holy) (ibid. 19:24).
They must be brought to and eaten b'Taharah in Yerushalayim. Alternatively,
the fruits may be redeemed (Pidyon), in which case the money used to redeem
them is brought to Yerushalayim. The food that is bought with this money is
Kodesh like Neta Reva'i and must be eaten b'Taharah in Yerushalayim.
(b) The Gemara records an argument as to whether the laws of Neta Reva'i
apply to all fruits or only to grapes (Kerem Reva'i). The Halachah in Eretz
Yisrael follows the opinion that the laws of Neta Reva'i apply to all fruits
(SHULCHAN ARUCH Yoreh De'ah 294:6).
(c) With regard to fruits that grew outside of Eretz Yisrael, there are
three opinions: 1. RABEINU YONAH to Berachos 35a, quoting RI HA'ZAKEN,
states that they have the same Halachah as fruits in Eretz Yisrael, and
require Pidyon; 2. The RAMBAM (Hilchos Ma'achalos Asuros 10:15) rules that
they do not require Pidyon; 3. GE'ONIM, TOSFOS Berachos 35a DH u'Leman and
ROSH to Berachos 35a explain that the rule, "the Halachah in Chutz la'Aretz
follows the opinion of those who hold the lenient opinion in Eretz Yisrael"
applies to Neta Reva'i. The lenient opinion is Kerem Reva'i, where the laws
of Kedushah and Pidyon apply only to grapes. Accordingly, only fourth-year
*grapes* need Pidyon.
(d) The SHACH (Yoreh De'ah 294:17) concludes that *all* fourth-year fruits
of Chutz la'Aretz should be redeemed without a Berachah in Chutz la'Aretz.
The Vilna Ga'on (ibid. 294:28) rules like the third opinion, 3., in which
case only grapes need Pidyon in Chutz la'Aretz, and a Berachah is recited on
4) [line 7] BI'SHE'AS LIKUTO ISURO - it year of Ma'aser is determined by
when it is picked
*5*) [line 19] B'ECHAD BI'SHEVAT? K'VEIS SHAMAI NAHAG BAH?! - he picked it
on the first of Shevat [and he considered that to be the beginning of a new
year]? Did he then rule like Beis Shamai?!
6) [line 23] KEROCH V'TANI - usually this means, "Put the statements
together (lit. wrap) and learn as follows..." According to Ravina in our
Sugya, however, some words of Rebbi Yosi bar Yehudah are missing, and
therefore this means, "Add on a segment to the Beraisa and learn as follows:
*The incident did not take place on the first of Shevat, but rather on the
fifteenth*. And Rebbi Akiva did not act according to the opinions of Beis
Shamai and Beis Hillel, but rather according to the opinions of Raban
Gamliel and Rebbi Eliezer... (Thus Tana Kama and Rebbi Yosi bar Yehudah
argue on two points instead of one.)
7) [last line] MA'ASER RISHON/MA'ASER SHENI/MA'ASER ANI
(a) After a crop is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he
must separate Terumah from the crop and give it to a Kohen. Although the
Torah does not specify the amount to be given, the Rabanan set the
requirement at one fiftieth of the total crop.
(b) After Terumah is removed from the produce, the first tithe to be given
every year is called Ma'aser Rishon; one tenth of the produce must be given
to a Levi.
(c) A second tithe is given every year after Ma'aser Rishon has been
separated. The tithe that is separated in the third and sixth years of the
7-year Shemitah cycle is called Ma'aser Ani and is given to the poor.
(d) The tithe that is separated during the first, second, fourth and fifth
years is called *Ma'aser Sheni*. The Torah requires that Ma'aser Sheni be
brought and eaten by its owner in Yerushalayim.
(e) Alternatively, Ma'aser Sheni produce may be redeemed, in which case the
money used to redeem it is brought to Yerushalayim. If the owner himself
redeems the produce, he must add an additional *fifth* (of the ensuing
total, or a *quarter* of the original value). The food that is bought with
this money in Yerushalayim becomes Kodesh like Ma'aser Sheni and must be
eaten b'Taharah. Ma'aser Sheni that was redeemed by anyone besides the owner
is exempt from the additional fifth.