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1) [line 1] LINAH
When a person offers a Korban, he must stay in Yerushalayim on the following
night. This is learned from the verse in Devarim 16:7.
2) [line 14] KEDI NASVAH - [Pesach] was listed [in the Beraisa] for no
3) [line 15] SHALMEI PESACH - if the animal designated as a Korban Pesach
was lost and another animal was sacrificed in its stead, the original animal
becomes a Korban Shelamim (see also Background to Pesachim 72:1)
4) [line 2] NEDER/NEDAVAH
(a) A person may offer a Korban in the Beis ha'Mikdash as a voluntary
sacrifice, as it states in Vayikra 1:2. Voluntary Korbanos may be Olos
(which are burned entirely on the Mizbe'ach, see Vayikra 1:2-17, 6:1-6),
Shelamim (parts of which are eaten, see Vayikra 3:1-17, 7:11-21, 7:28-37) or
Menachos (flour offerings, see Vayikra 2:1-13, 6:7-11, 7:9-10).
(b) When a person states, "I pledge an Olah" ("Harei Alai Olah"), without
singling out a specific animal, his pledge is called a Neder. When he sets
aside an animal with which to fulfill his pledge, and the animal gets lost
or dies, he must bring another in its place. If he states, "*This* animal is
an Olah" ("Harei Zu Olah"), his pledge is called a Nedavah. If the animal
gets lost or dies, he has no obligation to bring another in its place.
5) [line 6] CHILUFAV - its Temurah; see below, entry #8
6) [line 10] V'LO B'KORBANECHA CHET - (lit. your Korban will not have a sin)
the Korban does not become Pasul if the owner transgresses Bal Te'acher
7) [line 14] TODAH
(a) The Todah (thanksgiving-offering) is a form of Shelamim that is eaten
for only one day and one night (Vayikra 7:15). Korbenos Shelamim that are
offered by an individual may be brought from male or female sheep, cows or
goats. They are Kodshim Kalim, and may therefore be slaughtered in the
entire Azarah (and not only in its northern part). Before its slaughter, the
owner presses his hands on the head of the animal (Semichah). The blood of
the Shelamim is cast on the northeastern and southwestern corners of the
Mizbe'ach (Shenayim she'Hen Arba). Nesachim (a meal offering consisting of
flour and oil and a wine libation) are brought as part of the Korban
(Bamidbar 15:3-12). The meal offering is completely burned on the Mizbe'ach
and the wine is poured into one of the Sefalim (the silver libation pipes
located at the top of the southwest corner of the Mizbe'ach) (RAMBAM and
RA'AVAD Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 2:1). The amount of flour, oil and wine
needed depends upon the animal offered, as specified in Bamidbar ibid.
(b) An animal that was sacrificed as a Todah was brought together with forty
loaves of bread, ten each of the following:
(c) One loaf of each type of bread was given to the Kohen who performed the
Zerikas ha'Dam of the Todah (Vayikra 7:14). (These four loaves were known as
Terumas Lachmei Todah.) The Chazeh (breast) and Shok (thigh) of the Shelamim
were given to the Kohen (Vayikra 7:34). Certain fats and other parts of the
Korban were offered on the Mizbe'ach (Vayikra 3:3-4, 9-10, 14-15). The owner
and his guests (men or women) eat the rest of the Korban inside the borders
of the city of Yerushalayim. The meat may be cooked in any fashion and is
eaten on the day that it is slaughtered and the following night.
- unleavened loaves mixed with oil;
- flat unleavened Matzos saturated with oil;
- unleavened loaves made of boiled flour mixed with oil;
- loaves of leavened bread.
8) [line 15] TEMURASAH (TEMURAH)
(a) The Torah states, "Do not try to transfer or exchange it (an animal that
has been designated as a Korban) [for another animal], neither a good animal
for a bad one nor a bad one for a good one. If you do exchange an animal [of
Kodesh] for another animal [that is not], both the original animal and the
one given in exchange for it, will be Kodesh." (Vayikra 27:10).
(b) The second animal, or the Temurah, is a valid Korban, and if it has no
Mum (blemish that invalidates it), it must also be offered on the Mizbe'ach
(unless the original Korban was a Chatas or an Asham).
(c) Even if a person makes a Temurah unintentionally, he receives Malkos
(lashes). Some explain that this is only true if he intended to create one
type of Temurah, knowing that it is forbidden, and accidentally designated a
different type of Temurah (e.g. a Temuras Shelamim instead of a Temuras
Olah). Others maintain that even if he thought that it is permitted to make
a Temurah, he nevertheless receives Malkos (see Chart to Temurah 17a).
(d) The Chinuch explains that the reason for this prohibition is to teach us
the proper reverence that we must have for objects of Kedushah (SEFER
9) [line 33] PESULEI HA'MUKDASHIN
(a) Pesulei ha'Mukdashin are Korbanos that became unfit to be offered upon
the Mizbe'ach because of a Mum (blemish). After they are redeemed, it is
still forbidden to work with them and to shear them. The milk they produce
is also forbidden. They are only permitted to be eaten after being
slaughtered (Bechoros 15b).
(b) The Mishnah in Bechoros (5:1) states that Pesulei ha'Mikdashin may be
sold in the marketplace and weighed with a Roman Libra, a pound. These acts
are normally considered unfitting for Kodshim, and are prohibited to be done
to a Bechor (see Background to Beitzah 5:41).
10) [line 40] BAR HARTZA'AH - [Kodshim are offered as a gift or for
atonement] to arouse HaSh-m's mercy [so that He should show us grace]