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1) [line 1, 5] "U'MAH CHASHCHAN U'VNEI SORIN V'DICHRIN V'IMERIN LA'ALAVAN
LE'-LAH SHEMAYA CHINTIN MELACH CHAMAR U'MESHACH K'MEIMAR KAHANAYA DI
V'YRUSHELEM LEHEVEI MISYEHEV LEHOM YOM B'YOM DI LA SHALU. DI LEHEVON
MEHAKREVIN NICHOCHIN LE'-LAH SHEMAYA; U'METZALAYIN L'CHAYEI MALKA U'VNOHI."
- "And whatever they require - young bulls, rams, and sheep for burnt
offerings to the G-d of heaven, wheat, salt, wine and oil, according to the
specifications of the Kohanim who are in Yerushalayim - shall be supplied to
them day by day, without fail. So that they may offer pleasing offering to
the G-d of heaven and pray for the lives of the king and his children."
2) [line 5] MI'TUNACH - (a) (lit. from your own load [I shall burden you]) I
shall use the very next verse after the verse that you brought as proof for
your argument, in order to prove that I am correct (RASHI); (b) alt.
MATUNACH - I have reached you, overcome your arguments (RASHI to Chulin
3) [line 5] "DI LEHEVON MEHAKREVIN..." - see entry #1, above
4) [line 12] "NIDBACHIN DI EVEN GELAL TELASA, V'NIDBACH DI A' CHADAS;
V'NIFKESA MIN BEIS MALKA TISYEHEV" - "[There shall be] three rows of marble
and one row of new wood, with the expenses provided for by the royal palace"
5) [line 16] IKALYEI B'NURA - I will burn it (the Beis ha'Mikdash) down
6) [line 17] "[VA'YIVEN ES HE'CHATZER HA'PENIMIS,] SHELOSHAH TUREI GAZIS,
V'TUR KERUSOS ARAZIM." - "[He built [a wall around] the inner courtyard,]
of three rows of hewn stone, and a row of cedar beams." (Melachim I 6:36)
7) [line 20] SADYEI B'SIDA - covered it with plaster
8) [line 25] KALBESA - a female dog
9) [line 25] "V'AL MAREI SHEMAYA HISROMAMTA, UL'MANAYA DI VAISEI HAISIV
KADAMAYCH V'ANT V'RAVREVANAYCH SHEGELASACH U'LCHENASACH CHAMRA SHASAYIN
BEHON." - "You exalted yourself against the L-rd of Heaven, and the utensils
of His House were brought before you, and you, your nobles, your consorts
and your concubines drank wine from them." (Daniel 5:23) - The Gemara is
trying to prove from this verse that the word for consorts, Shegelasach,
cannot mean dogs.
10) [line 30] D'MALFA LAH V'SHASYA - it is possible to train it and it will
11) [line 31] "BENOS MELACHIM..." - "Daughters of kings are your visitors,
the queen stands erect at your right in the golden jewelry of Ofir."
(Tehilim 45:10) - The Gemara again challenges the assumption that the word
Shegal refers to a dog.
12) [line 37] B'LO KITZUSA - unlimited
13) [line 41] BAL TE'ACHER
(a) It is forbidden to delay fulfilling one's sacrificial commitments. For
example, if one is obligated to bring a Korban (such as a free-will offering
which he committed himself to bring), he must bring it by the first Regel.
If he delays bringing it past the Regel, he has transgressed the Aseh of
"ve'Heveisem Shamah..." (Rosh ha'Shanah 4a-b). If he delays bringing it for
three Regalim, he has transgressed the Lo Sa'aseh of "Lo Se'acher l'Shalmo"
(Devarim 23:22). The Tana'im argue as to how to count the three Regalim (see
Beitzah Chart #7).
(b) Bal Te'acher applies not only to Korbanos, but to other vows as well,
such as Tzedakah (Rosh ha'Shanah 6a) or Nezirus (Nedarim 3b).
14a) [line 42] LO MA'ARICHIN (ERCHIN)
Erech (= endowment valuation) refers to a special form of vow. If a person
declares, "Erech Ploni Alay" ("I accept upon myself to give the endowment
value of so-and-so to Hekdesh"), he must give the specific value that the
Torah designates for the person's gender and age group as stated in Vayikra
27:1-8. It makes no difference at all whether the person is healthy or sick,
strong or weak.
THE "ERECH" THAT THE TORAH SPECIFIES IN VAYIKRA 27
|1 Mo. - 5 Yrs.
|| 5 Shekels
|| 3 Shekels
|5 - 20 Yrs.
|| 20 Shekels
|| 10 Shekels
|20 - 60 Yrs.
|| 50 Shekels
|| 30 Shekels
|Over 60 Yrs.
|| 15 Shekels
|| 10 Shekels
15) [line 45] CHAYVEI DAMIM (DAMAI ALAY)
If a person makes a pledge to Hekdesh by saying, "Damai Alay" ("I accept
upon myself to give my value to Hekdesh"), he must give his actual worth to
Hekdesh; i.e. the amount which he would be worth if sold on the slave
16) [line 45] CHARAMIN
(a) There are two types of Charamim (a type of vow or pledge):
1. Chermei Kohanim, which are given to the Kohanim for their personal use
and cannot be redeemed from the Kohen;
(b) RASHI claims that this Beraisa is dealing only with Chermei Shamayim
while TOSFOS DH vha'Charamin states that the Beraisa refers to both Chermei
Kohanim and Chermei Shamayim.
2. Chermei Shamayim, which are given to the Beis ha'Mikdash for the Bedek
ha'Bayis and can be redeemed like any other Hekdesh.
17) [last line] BECHOR
(a) The Kedushah of Bechor rests on every first-born male of an ox, goat or
sheep when it comes out of its mother's womb. Nevertheless, there is a
Mitzvah for a person to sanctify it himself (Erchin 29, based on Devarim
15:19). He must then give it to a Kohen; it may not be redeemed.
(b) If the animal has no Mum (blemish), the Kohen must bring it as a Korban
during its first year. After its blood and Emurim (see Background to
Pesachim 43:15a and 95:9) are offered on the Mizbe'ach, its meat is eaten in
Yerushalayim during the following two days and the intervening night by
Kohanim, their wives, children and slaves.
(c) If the animal has a Mum, it must be slaughtered and eaten during its
first year. If it developed a Mum after the first year, it must be
slaughtered and eaten within thirty days. The Kohen can give it away or sell
it, even to a non-Kohen. However, it may not be sold in a meat market or
weighed in the usual manner.
(d) Whether or not it has a Mum, it is forbidden to work with a Bechor or to
shear it. Any fleece that is removed from a Bechor, even if it came off on
its own, is Asur b'Hana'ah. If, upon Shechitah, the animal is found to be a
Tereifah, it is Asur b'Hana'ah and must be buried.
(e) Now that there is no Beis ha'Mikdash, a Kohen must care for a Bechor
until it develops a Mum. Alternatively, he can sell it, even if it has no
Mum, to a non-Kohen, who may eat it after it develops a Mum. It may not be
bought, however, in order to be sold for a profit (Sefer ha'Chinuch #393,
18) [last line] MA'ASER (MA'ASER BEHEMAH)
(a) Every year, a person must collect all of the kosher animals that were
born during that year into a corral. As they leave the corral through a
narrow opening, one by one, the owner counts them and marks every tenth one
as Ma'aser Behemah, as stated in Vayikra (27:32), "v'Chol Ma'asar Bakar
va'Tzon, Kol Asher Ya'avor Tachas ha'Shevet, ha'Asiri Yiheyeh Kodesh la'Sh-
m" ("all of the herds and flocks shall be tithed as they are counted under
the rod, every tenth one being consecrated to HaSh-m").
(b) Ma'aser Behemah is eaten by its owner. If it has no Mum (defect or
blemish), it is offered as a Korban on the Mizbe'ach and eaten by its owner
in Yerushalayim. If it has a Mum, the owner may slaughter and eat it
19) [line 1] LEKET
"Leket" refers to individual (one or two) stalks that have fallen from the
sickle or from the reaper's hand during the harvest. Such stalks may not be
retrieved by the owner but must be left for the poor, as described in
Vayikra (19:9-10) "v'Leket Ketzircha Lo Selaket ... le'Ani vela'Ger Ta'azov
Osam." ("Do not pick up the individual stalks that have fallen from the
harvest ... you shall leave them (the gifts of Pe'ah, Leket, Olelos and
Peret) for the poor and the stranger.") If three stalks fall together, they
are not considered Leket and may be retrieved by the owner.
20) [line 1] SHIKCHAH
If one or two bundles of grain were forgotten in the field when the other
bundles were collected, they must be left for the poor, as described in
21) [line 1] PE'AH
The corner, or end, of the harvest must be left in the field for the poor,
as it states "Lo Sechaleh Pe'as Sadecha Liktzor ... le'Ani vela'Ger Ta'azov
Osam." (Vayikra 19:9-10) - "Do not completely harvest the corner of your
field ... you shall leave them (the gifts of Pe'ah, Leket, Olelos and Peret)
for the poor and the stranger."
22) [line 23] TUM'AS MIKDASH V'KODASHAV
It is forbidden for a person to enter the Mikdash or eat Kodshim if he
touched an Av ha'Tumah.
(a) If he knew that he was Tamei before and after the transgression, but
forgot at the time he transgressed, he must bring a Korban Oleh v'Yored.
This Korban varies based on the means of the penitent. If he is wealthy, he
brings a female sheep or goat as a Chatas. If he cannot afford this, he
brings two doves or two turtledoves, one as an Olah and one as a Chatas. If
he cannot even afford the birds, he brings one tenth of an Eifah of fine
flour as a Minchas Chatas. (Vayikra 5:6-13)
(b) If he willingly transgresses, he is liable to Kares and lashes (Vayikra
12:4, 22:3-4, Bamidbar 5:3, 19:20)
(c) If the person had no knowledge of the transgression, the goats that are
brought as Korbenos Chatas on the Yamim Tovin and Roshei Chodashim atone for
his sin (Shavu'os 10a).
23) [line 37] TASHLUMIN
(a) Every Jewish male is required to bring a Korban Re'iyah on the three
festivals. If the Korban was not brought on the first day of the festival,
it may be brought on any of the other six days of Pesach. On Sukos it may be
brought on the first day or the next seven days and on Shavu'os it may be
brought on Shavuos or on the six days following the festival.
(b) The Amora'im argue as to whether the primary obligation is to bring the
Korban on the first day of the festival. Those who rule as such consider the
successive days as "Tashlumin" (compensation) for the first day. Others rule
that the obligation is to bring a Korban on one of the days of the festival,
not necessarily the first (Chagigah 2a). The practical difference that
arises from this argument regards a person who was not fit to offer the
Korban on the first day, but became fit on the second day (such as a lame
person who became well or a blind person who regained his sight). According
to the opinion that the successive days are Tashlumin for the first day,
this person is exempt from his obligation since he was not fit to bring the
Korban on the first day of the festival. According to the other opinion, he
still has an obligation to bring it.
24) [line 40] PaZaR KaSHeV
These words are a mnemonic device listing six ways in which Shemini Atzeres
is a distinct festival and not just a continuation of Sukos: 1. Payis; 2.
Zeman; 3. Regel; 4. Korban; 5. Shir; 6. Berachah
1. PAYIS - on Shemini Atzeres, a *lottery* was cast to determine who would
offer the 10 animals (one ox, one ram, one he-goat and seven sheep) of the
Korban Musaf. On Sukos, the Kohanim used a rotation system among the
Mishmaros to determine who would offer the seventy oxen, fourteen rams,
seven he-goats and ninety-eight sheep that were brought during the seven
days of Sukos (Sukah 5:6)
25) [line 42] SHE'LO CHAG - that did not bring a Korban Chagigah; every
Jewish male is obligated to come to the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash on
Pesach, Shavuos and Sukos, and bring an animal as a Korban Chagigah, as the
Torah states, "Shalosh Regalim Tachog Li ba'Shanah" (Shemos 23:14)
2. ZEMAN - the blessing of "Shehechiyanu ... l'*Zeman* ha'Zeh" is said on
Shemini Atzeres (unlike the seventh day of Pesach on which it is not said
even though it is also a Yom Tov)
3. REGEL - (a) it is a *festival* on its own, and is not called one of the
days of Sukos (RASHI); (b) it is a *festival* on its own, and we do not sit
in the Sukah (RASHI to Sukah 48a); (c) as in other *festivals* at the time
of the Beis ha'Mikdash, one must stay overnight (Linah) in Yerushalayim on
the night after the festival (RABEINU TAM)
4. KORBAN - the *Korban Musaf* on Shemini Atzeres was different from the
Korban Musaf of the rest of Sukos; the oxen offered as Olos on Sukos
decreased from thirteen on the first day to seven on the seventh day. Each
day two rams, one he-goat and fourteen sheep were offered whereas on Shemini
Atzeres the Korban Musaf was one ox, one ram, one he-goat and seven sheep
5. SHIR - The Leviyim *sang chapters of Tehilim* while the Nesachim of a
Korban Tzibur were being brought. They sang the same verses of Tehilim that
we recite daily as the Shir Shel Yom (Tamid 6:7). On Mo'adim, special
Chapters of Tehilim were substituted instead of these (Maseches Sofrim 18:2-
3, 19:2). They also played musical instruments to accompany the singing. On
Sukos, the songs referred to the harvest and to the gifts given to the poor;
the song of Shemini Atzeres was of a different nature. RASHI cites Maseches
Sofrim (19:2) that states that the song of Shemini Atzeres is Lamenatze'ach
Al ha'Sheminis (Tehilim 12)
6. BERACHAH - (a) a *blessing* was said for the king on Shemini Atzeres
(Tosefta Sukah 4:10); (b) the *blessing* that is used during Tefilah and
Birchas ha'Mazon on Shemini Atzeres contains the words "b'Yom ha'Shemini,
Chag ha'Atzeres ha'Zeh," and not "b'Yom ha'Sukos ha'Zeh" (RASHI to Sukah
26) [line 43] TAFASTA MERUBAH, LO TAFASTA, TAFASTA MU'AT TAFASTA - if you
take hold of the larger amount you will not be able to grasp it, if you take
hold of the smaller amount you will be able to grasp it; i.e. where the
unknown item (the days of Tashlumin for Shavu'os) may be compared to the
seven days of of Pesach or the eight days of Sukos, we assume that it is
referring to the smaller quantity