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Rosh Hashanah 4

ROSH HASHANAH 2-10 sponsored by a generous grant from an anonymous donor. Kollel Iyun Hadaf is indebted to him for his encouragement and support and prays that Hashem will repay him in kind.

1) [line 1, 5] "U'MAH CHASHCHAN U'VNEI SORIN V'DICHRIN V'IMERIN LA'ALAVAN LE'-LAH SHEMAYA CHINTIN MELACH CHAMAR U'MESHACH K'MEIMAR KAHANAYA DI V'YRUSHELEM LEHEVEI MISYEHEV LEHOM YOM B'YOM DI LA SHALU. DI LEHEVON MEHAKREVIN NICHOCHIN LE'-LAH SHEMAYA; U'METZALAYIN L'CHAYEI MALKA U'VNOHI." - "And whatever they require - young bulls, rams, and sheep for burnt offerings to the G-d of heaven, wheat, salt, wine and oil, according to the specifications of the Kohanim who are in Yerushalayim - shall be supplied to them day by day, without fail. So that they may offer pleasing offering to the G-d of heaven and pray for the lives of the king and his children." (Ezra 6:9-10)

2) [line 5] MI'TUNACH - (a) (lit. from your own load [I shall burden you]) I shall use the very next verse after the verse that you brought as proof for your argument, in order to prove that I am correct (RASHI); (b) alt. MATUNACH - I have reached you, overcome your arguments (RASHI to Chulin 132a)

3) [line 5] "DI LEHEVON MEHAKREVIN..." - see entry #1, above
4) [line 12] "NIDBACHIN DI EVEN GELAL TELASA, V'NIDBACH DI A' CHADAS; V'NIFKESA MIN BEIS MALKA TISYEHEV" - "[There shall be] three rows of marble and one row of new wood, with the expenses provided for by the royal palace" (Ezra 6:4)

5) [line 16] IKALYEI B'NURA - I will burn it (the Beis ha'Mikdash) down
6) [line 17] "[VA'YIVEN ES HE'CHATZER HA'PENIMIS,] SHELOSHAH TUREI GAZIS, V'TUR KERUSOS ARAZIM." - "[He built [a wall around] the inner courtyard,] of three rows of hewn stone, and a row of cedar beams." (Melachim I 6:36)

7) [line 20] SADYEI B'SIDA - covered it with plaster
8) [line 25] KALBESA - a female dog
9) [line 25] "V'AL MAREI SHEMAYA HISROMAMTA, UL'MANAYA DI VAISEI HAISIV KADAMAYCH V'ANT V'RAVREVANAYCH SHEGELASACH U'LCHENASACH CHAMRA SHASAYIN BEHON." - "You exalted yourself against the L-rd of Heaven, and the utensils of His House were brought before you, and you, your nobles, your consorts and your concubines drank wine from them." (Daniel 5:23) - The Gemara is trying to prove from this verse that the word for consorts, Shegelasach, cannot mean dogs.

10) [line 30] D'MALFA LAH V'SHASYA - it is possible to train it and it will drink
11) [line 31] "BENOS MELACHIM..." - "Daughters of kings are your visitors, the queen stands erect at your right in the golden jewelry of Ofir." (Tehilim 45:10) - The Gemara again challenges the assumption that the word Shegal refers to a dog.

12) [line 37] B'LO KITZUSA - unlimited

13) [line 41] BAL TE'ACHER
(a) It is forbidden to delay fulfilling one's sacrificial commitments. For example, if one is obligated to bring a Korban (such as a free-will offering which he committed himself to bring), he must bring it by the first Regel. If he delays bringing it past the Regel, he has transgressed the Aseh of "ve'Heveisem Shamah..." (Rosh ha'Shanah 4a-b). If he delays bringing it for three Regalim, he has transgressed the Lo Sa'aseh of "Lo Se'acher l'Shalmo" (Devarim 23:22). The Tana'im argue as to how to count the three Regalim (see Beitzah Chart #7).
(b) Bal Te'acher applies not only to Korbanos, but to other vows as well, such as Tzedakah (Rosh ha'Shanah 6a) or Nezirus (Nedarim 3b).

14a) [line 42] LO MA'ARICHIN (ERCHIN)
Erech (= endowment valuation) refers to a special form of vow. If a person declares, "Erech Ploni Alay" ("I accept upon myself to give the endowment value of so-and-so to Hekdesh"), he must give the specific value that the Torah designates for the person's gender and age group as stated in Vayikra 27:1-8. It makes no difference at all whether the person is healthy or sick, strong or weak.

1 Mo. - 5 Yrs. 5 Shekels 3 Shekels
5 - 20 Yrs. 20 Shekels 10 Shekels
20 - 60 Yrs. 50 Shekels 30 Shekels
Over 60 Yrs. 15 Shekels 10 Shekels

If a person makes a pledge to Hekdesh by saying, "Damai Alay" ("I accept upon myself to give my value to Hekdesh"), he must give his actual worth to Hekdesh; i.e. the amount which he would be worth if sold on the slave market.

16) [line 45] CHARAMIN
(a) There are two types of Charamim (a type of vow or pledge):

1. Chermei Kohanim, which are given to the Kohanim for their personal use and cannot be redeemed from the Kohen;
2. Chermei Shamayim, which are given to the Beis ha'Mikdash for the Bedek ha'Bayis and can be redeemed like any other Hekdesh.
(b) RASHI claims that this Beraisa is dealing only with Chermei Shamayim while TOSFOS DH vha'Charamin states that the Beraisa refers to both Chermei Kohanim and Chermei Shamayim.

17) [last line] BECHOR
(a) The Kedushah of Bechor rests on every first-born male of an ox, goat or sheep when it comes out of its mother's womb. Nevertheless, there is a Mitzvah for a person to sanctify it himself (Erchin 29, based on Devarim 15:19). He must then give it to a Kohen; it may not be redeemed.
(b) If the animal has no Mum (blemish), the Kohen must bring it as a Korban during its first year. After its blood and Emurim (see Background to Pesachim 43:15a and 95:9) are offered on the Mizbe'ach, its meat is eaten in Yerushalayim during the following two days and the intervening night by Kohanim, their wives, children and slaves.
(c) If the animal has a Mum, it must be slaughtered and eaten during its first year. If it developed a Mum after the first year, it must be slaughtered and eaten within thirty days. The Kohen can give it away or sell it, even to a non-Kohen. However, it may not be sold in a meat market or weighed in the usual manner.
(d) Whether or not it has a Mum, it is forbidden to work with a Bechor or to shear it. Any fleece that is removed from a Bechor, even if it came off on its own, is Asur b'Hana'ah. If, upon Shechitah, the animal is found to be a Tereifah, it is Asur b'Hana'ah and must be buried.
(e) Now that there is no Beis ha'Mikdash, a Kohen must care for a Bechor until it develops a Mum. Alternatively, he can sell it, even if it has no Mum, to a non-Kohen, who may eat it after it develops a Mum. It may not be bought, however, in order to be sold for a profit (Sefer ha'Chinuch #393, #445).

18) [last line] MA'ASER (MA'ASER BEHEMAH)
(a) Every year, a person must collect all of the kosher animals that were born during that year into a corral. As they leave the corral through a narrow opening, one by one, the owner counts them and marks every tenth one as Ma'aser Behemah, as stated in Vayikra (27:32), "v'Chol Ma'asar Bakar va'Tzon, Kol Asher Ya'avor Tachas ha'Shevet, ha'Asiri Yiheyeh Kodesh la'Sh- m" ("all of the herds and flocks shall be tithed as they are counted under the rod, every tenth one being consecrated to HaSh-m").
(b) Ma'aser Behemah is eaten by its owner. If it has no Mum (defect or blemish), it is offered as a Korban on the Mizbe'ach and eaten by its owner in Yerushalayim. If it has a Mum, the owner may slaughter and eat it anywhere.


19) [line 1] LEKET
"Leket" refers to individual (one or two) stalks that have fallen from the sickle or from the reaper's hand during the harvest. Such stalks may not be retrieved by the owner but must be left for the poor, as described in Vayikra (19:9-10) "v'Leket Ketzircha Lo Selaket ... le'Ani vela'Ger Ta'azov Osam." ("Do not pick up the individual stalks that have fallen from the harvest ... you shall leave them (the gifts of Pe'ah, Leket, Olelos and Peret) for the poor and the stranger.") If three stalks fall together, they are not considered Leket and may be retrieved by the owner.

20) [line 1] SHIKCHAH
If one or two bundles of grain were forgotten in the field when the other bundles were collected, they must be left for the poor, as described in Devarim (24:19).

21) [line 1] PE'AH
The corner, or end, of the harvest must be left in the field for the poor, as it states "Lo Sechaleh Pe'as Sadecha Liktzor ... le'Ani vela'Ger Ta'azov Osam." (Vayikra 19:9-10) - "Do not completely harvest the corner of your field ... you shall leave them (the gifts of Pe'ah, Leket, Olelos and Peret) for the poor and the stranger."

It is forbidden for a person to enter the Mikdash or eat Kodshim if he touched an Av ha'Tumah.
(a) If he knew that he was Tamei before and after the transgression, but forgot at the time he transgressed, he must bring a Korban Oleh v'Yored. This Korban varies based on the means of the penitent. If he is wealthy, he brings a female sheep or goat as a Chatas. If he cannot afford this, he brings two doves or two turtledoves, one as an Olah and one as a Chatas. If he cannot even afford the birds, he brings one tenth of an Eifah of fine flour as a Minchas Chatas. (Vayikra 5:6-13)
(b) If he willingly transgresses, he is liable to Kares and lashes (Vayikra 12:4, 22:3-4, Bamidbar 5:3, 19:20)
(c) If the person had no knowledge of the transgression, the goats that are brought as Korbenos Chatas on the Yamim Tovin and Roshei Chodashim atone for his sin (Shavu'os 10a).

23) [line 37] TASHLUMIN
(a) Every Jewish male is required to bring a Korban Re'iyah on the three festivals. If the Korban was not brought on the first day of the festival, it may be brought on any of the other six days of Pesach. On Sukos it may be brought on the first day or the next seven days and on Shavu'os it may be brought on Shavuos or on the six days following the festival.
(b) The Amora'im argue as to whether the primary obligation is to bring the Korban on the first day of the festival. Those who rule as such consider the successive days as "Tashlumin" (compensation) for the first day. Others rule that the obligation is to bring a Korban on one of the days of the festival, not necessarily the first (Chagigah 2a). The practical difference that arises from this argument regards a person who was not fit to offer the Korban on the first day, but became fit on the second day (such as a lame person who became well or a blind person who regained his sight). According to the opinion that the successive days are Tashlumin for the first day, this person is exempt from his obligation since he was not fit to bring the Korban on the first day of the festival. According to the other opinion, he still has an obligation to bring it.

24) [line 40] PaZaR KaSHeV These words are a mnemonic device listing six ways in which Shemini Atzeres is a distinct festival and not just a continuation of Sukos: 1. Payis; 2. Zeman; 3. Regel; 4. Korban; 5. Shir; 6. Berachah

1. PAYIS - on Shemini Atzeres, a *lottery* was cast to determine who would offer the 10 animals (one ox, one ram, one he-goat and seven sheep) of the Korban Musaf. On Sukos, the Kohanim used a rotation system among the Mishmaros to determine who would offer the seventy oxen, fourteen rams, seven he-goats and ninety-eight sheep that were brought during the seven days of Sukos (Sukah 5:6)
2. ZEMAN - the blessing of "Shehechiyanu ... l'*Zeman* ha'Zeh" is said on Shemini Atzeres (unlike the seventh day of Pesach on which it is not said even though it is also a Yom Tov)
3. REGEL - (a) it is a *festival* on its own, and is not called one of the days of Sukos (RASHI); (b) it is a *festival* on its own, and we do not sit in the Sukah (RASHI to Sukah 48a); (c) as in other *festivals* at the time of the Beis ha'Mikdash, one must stay overnight (Linah) in Yerushalayim on the night after the festival (RABEINU TAM)
4. KORBAN - the *Korban Musaf* on Shemini Atzeres was different from the Korban Musaf of the rest of Sukos; the oxen offered as Olos on Sukos decreased from thirteen on the first day to seven on the seventh day. Each day two rams, one he-goat and fourteen sheep were offered whereas on Shemini Atzeres the Korban Musaf was one ox, one ram, one he-goat and seven sheep
5. SHIR - The Leviyim *sang chapters of Tehilim* while the Nesachim of a Korban Tzibur were being brought. They sang the same verses of Tehilim that we recite daily as the Shir Shel Yom (Tamid 6:7). On Mo'adim, special Chapters of Tehilim were substituted instead of these (Maseches Sofrim 18:2- 3, 19:2). They also played musical instruments to accompany the singing. On Sukos, the songs referred to the harvest and to the gifts given to the poor; the song of Shemini Atzeres was of a different nature. RASHI cites Maseches Sofrim (19:2) that states that the song of Shemini Atzeres is Lamenatze'ach Al ha'Sheminis (Tehilim 12)
6. BERACHAH - (a) a *blessing* was said for the king on Shemini Atzeres (Tosefta Sukah 4:10); (b) the *blessing* that is used during Tefilah and Birchas ha'Mazon on Shemini Atzeres contains the words "b'Yom ha'Shemini, Chag ha'Atzeres ha'Zeh," and not "b'Yom ha'Sukos ha'Zeh" (RASHI to Sukah 48a)
25) [line 42] SHE'LO CHAG - that did not bring a Korban Chagigah; every Jewish male is obligated to come to the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash on Pesach, Shavuos and Sukos, and bring an animal as a Korban Chagigah, as the Torah states, "Shalosh Regalim Tachog Li ba'Shanah" (Shemos 23:14)

26) [line 43] TAFASTA MERUBAH, LO TAFASTA, TAFASTA MU'AT TAFASTA - if you take hold of the larger amount you will not be able to grasp it, if you take hold of the smaller amount you will be able to grasp it; i.e. where the unknown item (the days of Tashlumin for Shavu'os) may be compared to the seven days of of Pesach or the eight days of Sukos, we assume that it is referring to the smaller quantity

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