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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Pesachim 104


(a) What is the minimum number of items that the Berachah of Havdalah should contain, and what is the maximum?

(b) Then what is the problem with our Nusach (which is the Nusach that Rava used) 'ha'Mavdil Bein Kodesh le'Chol, Bein Or le'Choshech, Bein Yisrael la'Amim, Bein Yom ha'Shevi'i le'Sheshes Yemei ha'Ma'aseh'?

(c) How does the Gemara resolve this problem?

(a) The Gemara gives arbitrary guide-lines for the Nusach of the Berachos, which was not yet fixed in those days.
What does Rav Yehudah Amar Shmuel say about the last item in Havdalah before the final Berachah?

(b) The Pumbedisa'i disagree.
What do they hold?

(c) Is this Machlokes confined to Havdalah?

(d) What is the difference between the two opinions?

(a) Why is there no Havdalah between Shabbos and Yom-Tov and between Yom-Tov and Chol ha'Mo'ed?

(b) We learned above that Havdalah should not contain less than *three* items and not more than *seven*. Rebbi Yochanan quotes Rebbi Menachem bar Sima'i (B'nan shel Kedoshim), who disagrees.
What does he say?

(c) Why did Rebbi Menachem bar Sima'i bear the title 'B'nan shel Kedoshim'?

(a) The Tana of the Beraisa supplements the seven possible items contained in the Berachah with the following four: 1. Bein Tamei le'Tahor; 2. Bein ha'Yam le'Charavah; 3. Bein Mayim ha'Elyonim le'Mayim ha'Tachtonim; 4. Bein Kohanim la'Levi'im le'Yisraelim'.
If, as Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi says, the items must all be mentioned in the Torah, which one of these must be omitted?

(b) That leaves us with only *six* items. How do we then account for the one missing item? What is the connection between that and the Pesukim "ba'Eis ha'Hi Havdil Hashem es Sheivet ha'Levi" (Eikev), and "B'nei Amram, Aharon u'Moshe, va'Yavdel Aharon le'Hakdisho"?

(c) The only one of all the Havdolos that is not mentioned in the Torah is the last one: 'Bein Yom ha'Shevi'i le'Sheshes Yemei ha'Ma'aseh'
Why is that acceptable?

(d) Some say that one concludes 'Baruch Soder Bereishis', others 'Baruch Yotzer Bereishi's, and yet others, 'Baruch Mekadesh Yisrael'. Why would we say ...

  1. ... 'Baruch Soder Bereishis' - on Motza'ei Shabbos?
  2. ... 'Baruch Mekadesh Yisrael' - to conclude Havdalah? How does that fit into the concept of Havdalah?
(a) According to Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Yehudah, one concludes Havdalah with 'Mekadesh Yisrael', and Rav agrees with him. Abaye cursed anyone who uses that Nusach. Presumably he follows the opinion of Shmuel (which is also how we rule).
What does Shmuel hold?

(b) What did Rebbi Yehoshua ben Chananyah say about anyone who concludes 'Mekadesh Yisrael ve'h'Mavdil Bein Kodesh la'Chol'?

(c) Why do we not rule like ...

  1. ... Rebbi Yehoshua?
  2. ... Rav (rather than Shmuel)?
6) How do we conclude Havdalah on Motza'ei Yom-Tov that falls on Shabbos?

Answers to questions



(a) What did Abaye learn from Ula when he (Ula) came to Pumbedisa?

(b) Why was Rav Yehudah angry with his son Rav Yitzchak?

(c) What did Abaye gain by the fact that this Halachah was now quoted in *his* name, and not in that of Rav Yitzchak b'Rav Yehudah?

(a) Why do Birchos ha'Mitzvos and Birchos ha'Peiros not end with a Berachah?

(b) Which group of Berachos end with a Berachah but do not begin with one?

(c) Considering that the Berachah of 'Ga'al Yisrael' follows the Shema (and not another Berachah), why is it counted in this latter group?

(d) Why does the fourth Berachah of Birchas ha'Mazon ('ha'Tov ve'ha'Meitiv') begin with a Berachah - in spite of the fact that it follows the third Berachah of Birchas ha'Mazon (Boneh Yerushalayim)?

9) Seeing as the Berachah of Havdalah does not appear to fit into any of the above-mentioned categories, why did Ula (whose Birchas Havdalah consisted exclusively of 'ha'Mavdil Bein Kodesh Lechol') not end with a Berachah?

Answers to questions
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