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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Pesachim 54


(a) Acording to the Tana Kama, as soon as one sees a light on Motza'ei Shabbos, one recites a Berachah over it.
What does Rebbi Yehudah say?

(b) What is the problem with Rebbi Yochanan, who rules like Rebbi Yehudah, who also said that one only recites a Berachah over the light on Motza'ei Shabbos? How does this appear to contradict what he (Rebbi Yochanan) just said?

(c) Over which kind of flame do we recite a Berachah only on Motza'ei Shabbos, and over which kind may we recite it even on Motza'ei Yom Kipur?

(a) Among the ten things that Hashem created Erev Shabbos at dusk were 1. Miriam's well; 2. K'sav; 3. Mechatev; 4. the cave in which Moshe stood.
What was the shape of Miriam's well?

(b) What is the difference between the K'sav and the Mechatev?

(c) Who else stayed in the same cave as Moshe?

(d) Tana'im add to the list - fire, the first mule, the ram of the Akeidah, the Shamir, and the first pair of tongs, without which tongs cannot be manufactured.
What is the significance of ...

  1. ... the first mule?
  2. ... the Shamir?
(a) How do we reconcile the Beraisa, which gives the time of the creation of fire as being on the first Motza'ei Shabbos, with the Beraisa, which states that it was Erev Shabbos at dusk?

(b) Seven things were created before the world.
Which of them do we learn from ...

  1. ... "Hashem Kanani Reishis Darko" (Mishlei)?
  2. ... "be'Terem Harim Yaladu ... Tashev Enosh Ad Daka ... "?
  3. ... "Vayita Hashem Elokim Gan be'Eden Mikedem"?
(c) After Gehinom and Hashem's Throne, what are the remaining two?

(d) How do we reconcile the previous Beraisa, which gives the time of the creation of Gehinom as Erev Shabbos at dusk, with this Beraisa, which claims that it was created before the world was?

(a) Why does the Torah not write 'Ki Tov' on the second day of the creation?

(b) But didn't we just say that Gehinom was created on Erev Shabbos at dusk?
When *was* it created? And what happened on Motza'ei Shabbos?

(c) What do we learn from the Pasuk in Yeshayah "Ve'yatz'u ve'Ra'u be'Figrei ha'Anashim ... Ki Tola'tam Lo Tamus, ve'Isham Lo Sichbeh"?

(d) How was the the first man-made fire invented?

(a) What do the first man-made fire and the first mule have in common?

(b) According to another opinion, it was Ana who created the first mule.
Who was Anah (Tziv'on's son or Tziv'on's brother) and what do the Dorshei Chamuros say about him?

(c) The Gemara learns from the Pasuk in Vayishlach "Hu Anah" that the two Anah's mentioned are one and the same.
How do we derive that from there?

(a) In addition to the four things mentioned above that were created Erev Shabbos at dusk, the Beraisa also includes in the list, the Manna, the rainbow, the Luchos, Moshe's grave, the mouth of Bil'am's donkey and the mouth of the earth that swallows the Resha'im.
Which two things (besides Adam's hunting garment) do some Tana'im in the latter Beraisa, add to this list?

(b) What was special about Adam's garment?

Answers to questions



(a) Nobody knows when they will die, when they will be consoled from their troubles, how far the Divine Justice will go, what the next person is thinking or from which trade or profession he will earn his Parnasah.
What are the other three things in the list?

(b) Why is it essential for ...

  1. ... a corpse to become putrid soon after death?
  2. ... produce to go bad?
  3. ... a deceased relative to become forgotten?
(c) What else do others include in the inevitables list?
(a) Working on Tish'ah be'Av is also subject to Minhag.
What kind of people refrain from work even in a town where the Minhag is to work?

(b) What does Raban Shimon ben Gamliel say about this?

(c) What are the ramifications of Shmuel's statement 'Ein Ta'anis Tzibur be'Bavel Ela Tish'ah be'Av Bilevad'?

(a) What does the Mishnah in Ta'anis mean (and what does it not mean) when it writes (with regard to a Ta'anis Tzibur) 'Ochlin ve'Shosin mi'be'Od Yom'?

(b) Ho does that enable us to reconcile Shmuel's two statements, one, as quoted in 8c, and the other: 'Tish'ah be'Av Bein Hashemashos she'Lo Mutar'? Why would they otherwise have clashed?

(c) The Gemara thought to prove what we just said from the Beraisa 'Ein Bein Tish'ah be'Av le'Yom ha'Kipurim Ela she'Zeh Sefeiko Asur' ve'Zeh Sefeiko Mutar'. This proof however, is not conclusive.
What else might the Beraisa mean?

(a) Rava obligates pregnant and feeding women to complete the fast on Tish'ah be'Av, and concludes his statement with the words 'u'Bein Hashemashos she'Lo Asur' - and this is also the opinion of Rebbi Yochanan. What then, does Rebbi Yochanan mean when he says 'Tish'ah be'Av Einah ke'Ta'anis Tzibur'?

(b) Although the previous statement and explanation are Halachically correct, Rebbi Yochanan cannot have meant *that*.
Why not?

(c) So we explain Rebbi Yochanan with regard to Tefilas Ne'ilah.
How do we reconcile this with his other statement 'u'Levai she'Yispalel Adam Kol ha'Yom Kulo'?

(d) Alternatively, we explain Rebbi Yochanan's statement 'Tish'ah be'Av Einah ke'Ta'anis Tzibur' - with reference to twenty-four.
What does that mean?

(a) How does Rav Papa explain 'Tish'ah be'Av Einah ke'Ta'anis Tzibur' Lechumra, which will actually conform with his (and Rava's) statement 'u'Bein Hashemashos she'Lo Asur'?

(b) Then how does Rebbi Yochanan explain the Beraisa 'Ein Bein Tish'ah be'Av le'Yom ha'Kipurim Ela she'Zeh Sefeiko Asur' ve'Zeh Sefeiko Mutar'?

(c) What can we deduce from there, and how does this bear out Rebbi Elazar ruling regarding placing one's finger into water on Tish'ah be'Av?

(a) What is the problem with Rebbi Elazar's ruling from the Beraisa 'Ein Bein Tish'ah be'Av le'Ta'nis Tzibur Ela she'Zeh Asur ba'Asi'as Melachah ...? What can we deduce from there that appears to clash with Rebbi Elazar's statement?

(b) The Gemara answers 'Tana Kuli Kuli Katani'.
What does this mean?

Answers to questions
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