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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Pesachim 12

1) How much margin of error does *Rava* allow each witness ...

  1. ... according to Rebbi Meir?
  2. ... according to Rebbi Yehudah?
... and how does he explain their opinion?


(a) What are the seven Chakiros?

(b) What are the Bedikos?

(c) What is the Halachic difference between the two, and what is the reason for this?

(d) If the witnesses are permitted such a large margin of error, then why is the Chakirah of the hour when the murder took place, not considered a testimony that is not subject to Hazamah?

(a) Why do we not allow the hour before dawn-break to the witness who said that the murder took place in the second hour - according to Rebbi Meir?

(b) And why do we not allow the seventh hour to the witness who said that the murder took place in the fifth hour according to Rebbi Yehudah?

Answers to questions


4) In our Mishnah, Rebbi Meir forbade eating Chametz in the sixth hour, and Rebbi Yehudah even in the fifth.
According to Abaye, why did Chazal not allow eating up to the end of the *sixth* hour according to Rebbi Meir, or up to five and a half hours or at least till the end of the *fifth*, according to Rebbi Yehudah?


(a) According to Rava, how can Rebbi Meir permit eating in the fifth hour? Why are we not afraid that perhaps one will make a mistake of two hours, and eat Chametz in the seventh hour?

(b) In that case, why can one not eat in the sixth hour, when the sun has not yet reached the west?

(a) According to Rava, who holds in Rebbi Yehudah that a person is capable of erring up to three hours, why does Rebbi Yehudah not forbid eating Chametz already from the fourth hour?

(b) Then why may one not even eat in the *fifth* hour - according to Abaye, who explains Rebbi Yehudah according to Rava's interpretation?

(c) Rava initially explains that Rebbi Yehudah forbids the fifth hour in order that people should collect fire-wood to burn their Chametz in the sixth hour.
What is the Kashya on this contention from the Beraisa, where Rebbi Yehudah differentiates between 'she'Lo be'Sha'as Bi'uro' and 'be'Sha'as Bi'uro'?

(a) How does Rava Finally explain Rebbi Yehudah?

(b) Then why does Rebbi Yehudah permit the *fourth* hour?

(c) According to the Beraisa, the fourth hour is when the workers eat, the fifth hour, the Talmidei-Chachamim, and the *sixth* hour, most people.
How do we reconcile this with Rebbi Yehudah, whom we have just quoted as saying that most people eat in the *fourth* hour?

(d) How does the Beraisa describe someone who eats only later than that, and when does this not apply?

(a) Rav Ashi says that in the same way as Rebbi Meir and Rebbi Yehudah argue by Eidus, so too do they argue by Chametz.
What might we otherwise have thought?

(b) What in effect, is Rav Ashi teaching us?

(a) If one witness testifies that the murder took place *before* sunrise, and the other witness says, *after* sunrise, will their testimony be accepted?

(b) If one of the witnesses says that the murder took place *before* sunrise, and the other one said, *during* sunrise, that their testimony is *not* acceptable.
Why would we have thought that it *would* be?

Answers to questions
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