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Pesachim 120

PESACHIM 120-121 (25-26 Kislev) - the Daf study material for the first day of Chanukah has been dedicated to the memory of Hagaon Rav Yisrael Zev Gustman ZaTZaL (author of "Kuntresei Shiurim"), whose Shiurim lit the eyes of many, by his students.


1) According to Mar Zutra quoting Rav Yosef - Rav Yehudah Amar Shmuel says 'Maftirin Achar Matzah Afikoman'.


(a) The Torah writes "Al Matzos u'Merorim Yochluhu" - suggesting that, when there is no Pesach, there is not Maror and no Matzah either. So how can Mar Zutra say that Matzah nowadays is d'Oraysa any more than Maror is?

(b) The answer is that Matzah has another Pasuk (in Bo) "ba'Erev Tochlu Matzos", implying that Matzah is an independant Mitzvah, and applies even when Pesach (and Maror) do not.

(c) According to Rav Acha bar Ya'akov - Matzah nowadays is mi'de'Rabbanan, just like Maror.

(d) Rav Acha bar Ya'akov holds that "ba'Erev Tochlu Matzos" comes to obligate a Tamei and a Derech Rechokah to eat Matzah, even though they are exempt from Pesach (but that applies only in the time of the Beis Hamikdash, when the Mitzvah of eating Matzah is in full force - as far as everybody else is concerned).

(a) Rava learns the obligation of a Tamei and Derech Rechokah in the time of the Beis Hamikdash to eat Matzah and Maror from Areil and Ben Neichar, who are Chayav from the Pasuk "Kol Areil Lo Yochal *Bo*" - 'Bo Eino Ocheil, Aval Ochel be'Matzah u'Maror'.

(b) According to Rav Acha bar Ya'akov, we cannot learn ...

1. ... Tamei and Derech Rechokah from Areil and Ben Neichar - because (unlike the latter) they can be brought on Pesach Sheini.
2. ... Areil and Ben Neichar from Tamei and Derech Rechokah - because had the Torah just written "ba'Erev Tochlu Matzos" (and not "Bo"), then we have have used it to include Areil; and Ben Neichar (and not Tamei and Derech Rechokah, who are able to bring the Pesach Sheini).
(c) The Tana learn from "Sheshes Yamim Tochal Matzos, u'va'Yom ha'Shevi'i Atzeres la'Hashem Elokecha" - that just as eating Matzah on the seventh day is voluntary (since the Torah writes "u'va'Yom ha'Shevi'i Atzeres'... without making any mention of Matzah), so too, is it voluntary on the first six days of Pesach - because it is a 'Davar she'Hayah bi'Chelal (part of the seven days of Pesach), ve'Yatza min ha'K'lal Lelamed, Lo Lelamed Al Atzmo (Levad) Yatza, Ela Lelamed Al ha'K'lal Kulo Yatza'.
(a) 'Yashnu Kulan, Lo Yochlu' - because it resembles eating the Pesach (or Matzah) in two places.

(b) The reason cannot be because it looks like eating the Pesach in two groups - because the Stam Mishnah above (86a) forbade eating the Pesach in two places (like Rebbi Yehudah), but not splitting the Pesach into two groups (like Rebbi Shimon).

(c) This prohibition does indeed extend to Matzah nowadays.

(d) The Tana's reason cannot be because of 'Ein Maftirin Achar Matzah Afikoman' - because if so, why did the Gemara not ask earlier from here on those who hold 'Maftirin Achar ha'Pesach Afikomon'.




(a) If only some of the participants fell asleep - then, according to the Tana Kama, they may all continue to eat when they wake up.

(b) Rebbi Yossi, who says that someone who dozes off, may continue to eat the Pesach (or Matzah nowadays), provided he did not fall into a deep sleep - comes to forbid even *some* of the participants, if they fell into a deep sleep (to be stringent in the Reisha) - if they were to *all* fall asleep then, even if they did *not* sleep deeply, they would not be permitted to continue to eat when they awoke.

(c) Pigul and Nosar after midnight - are Metamei the hands.

(d) The Pesach is Metamei the hands after midnight - because that is when it becomes Nosar, and Nosar, as we have just learned, is Metamei the hands.

(a) Rav Ashi defines 'doze' as someone who is half asleep and half awake, and that, when one asks him simple facts which require a 'Yes!' or a 'No!' (such as 'Did you put that book on the table'), he is able to answer, but he is still in too deep a asleep to supply the relevant information of his own accord.

(b) When, in the middle of the Afikoman, Abaye asked Rabah whether he had been dozing, he replied, that, even if he had, did our Mishnah not write 'Nisnamnemu, Yochlu, Nirdemu Lo Yochlu').

(c) This incident comes to prove that the Halachah is like Rebbi Yossi, who holds that if some of the participants fell into a deep sleep, they are forbidden to continue when they wake up - which is why Rabah stressed that he had only been dozing.

(a) Rebbi Akiva (according to whom the Mitzvah of Pesach lasts until morning) learns from "ba'Laylah" - that the Pesach cannot be eaten by day, and from "ha'Zeh" - that it cannot be eaten for two nights (like a Shelamim, which can be eaten for two days).

(b) Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah explains the Pasuk in Bo "ve'Lo Sosiru Mimenu Ad Boker" - that one cannot eat the Pesach for two nights (if not for this Dershah, he would have learned "ha'Zeh" like Rebbi Akiva).

(c) Rebbi Akiva agrees that, mi'de'Rabbanan, the Pesach must be eaten before midnight.

(a) If not for "ha'Zeh", Rebbi Akiva would learn the time-period of eating the Korban Pesach from Shelamim to be two nights and one day. According to ...
1. ... Rashi - 'one day' is said with tongue in cheek, because it is only for the two nights that one would be permitted to eat it (since we have just learned that the Pesach must be eaten in the night).
2. ... the Rashbam - the time period during which to eat the Pesach is literally two nights and one day.
(b) Rava says that, nowadays, someone who eats Matzah after midnight - according to Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah, is not Yotze. We would otherwise have thought that he *is* - because of the Derashah (cited on the previous Amud 3c) which compares the first six days to the seventh, rendering them Reshus (even the first night), and demolishing the Hekesh of Matzah to Pesach (from which we learn that Matzah must be eaten until midnight). Rava teaches us that now that the Torah reinstates Matzah nowadays with the Derashah of "ba'Erev Tochlu Matzos", the comparison to Pesach remains intact.
(a) Rav Huna and Rav Chisda argue whether a k'Zayis of Pigul and Nosar is Metamei the hands, or whether it is only a k'Beitzah - the one who gives the Shiur as a k'Zayis compares it to the Isur (i.e. because that is the Shiur for which one receives Malkos if one ate it); and the one gives it as a k'Beitzah compares it to the Shiur of Tum'ah (because that is its Shiur Tum'ah to render food Tamei).

(b) One of them ascribes the reason for this decree to 'Chashadei Kehunah' - this refers to Pigul because the Kohanim were suspect of rendering the Korbanos of the Yisraelim, Pigul, to cause them a monetary loss, vindicating themselves by claiming that they had done so by mistake; the other one, to 'Atzlei Kehunah' - refers to Nosar, where both the Kohanim and the Yisraelim were suspected of simply not taking the trouble to eat all the Korbanos.

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