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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Pesachim 118



(a) According to Rav Yehudah, the 'Birchas ha'Shir' that is included in the fourth Kos, is 'Yehalelucha' (the final Berachah of Hallel); according to Rebbi Yochanan, it incorporates 'Nishmas', too. (Note: some texts read 'Kos *Chamishi*, Omrin Alav Hallel ha'Gadol' - see Rosh, Si'man 33 - who goes on to discuss the voluntary fifth Kos).

(b) The order of the Seder after Hallel is Hallel ha'Gadol, Nishmas and the Berachah (though whether the Berachah is 'Yishtabach' [which always follows Nishmas], or 'Yehalelucha' [which he might say after Hallel, where it is always said] is not clear - see Rosh, end of Si'man 32).

(c) Kapitel 136 ("Hodu la'Hashem Ki Tov") is called Hallel ha'Gadol - because in contains the phrase "Nosen Lechem le'Chol Basar", and the fact that Hashem sits in Heaven and distributes food to all the creatures that He created, is a great thing.

(d) Kapitel 23 ("Hashem Ro'i"), which, according to Yesh Omrim (Rebbi Nasan) we say instead - also speaks about Hashem feeding Klal Yisrael.

(a) The twenty-six 'Ki le'Olam Chasdo' represent the twenty-six generations before the Torah was given, when Hashem fed the world purely on the merit of His kindness.

(b) "Hodu la'Hashem Ki *Tov* Ki Le'olam Chasdo" - means that one should thank Hashem - because He exacts payment from everybody (for his sins) via the good things that he has, the rich man with his ox (i.e. He takes it as a security in order to spare his life), the poor man with his lamb; the orphan with his egg and the widow with her chicken.

(c) We learn from the fact that ...

1. ... whereas by childbirth, the Torah writes "*be'Etzev* Teldi Vanim", by Parnasah, it writes "*be'Itzavon*" - that the pains of Parnasah are double those of child-birth.
2. ... whereas by redemption, the Torah writes "*ha'Mal'ach* ha'Go'el Osi", by Parnasah it writes "*ha'Elokim* ha'Ro'eh Osi" - that Parnasah is far more difficult to execute than redemption from one's personal troubles, since by redemption, Ya'akov Avinu talked about a Mal'ach performing it, whereas by Parnasah, he mentioned Hashem Himself.
(a) After Adam sinned, Hashem said to him "ve'Kotz ve'Dardar Tatzmi'ach Lach", implying that he will have to eat the thorns and the thistles (just like the animals). At this, he burst into tears at the thought of eating together with his donkey from the same feeding-trough. So Hashem changed the decree to "be'Zei'as Apecha Tochal Lechem" - from which we can learn that people generally prefer the curse of hard work to that of embarrassment.

(b) Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah learns from the juxtaposition of the two Pesukim in Tehilim "Nosen Lechem le'Chol Basar" and "le'Gozer Yam-Suf li'Gezarim" - that (seen from a human perspective), a person's Parnasah is as difficult (miraculous) as the crossing of the Reed-Sea.

(c) He compares a person who is constipated - to the day of death and to Keri'as Yam-Suf. (Note: It is unclear why the Rashbam explains 'Nekavav' to mean constipation, nor is it clear what the Gemara is telling us. The Agados Maharsha explains it to mean the digestive system, and the Gemara is teaching us here that it is an ongoing wonder that surpasses the miracle of Keri'as Yam-Suf).

(d) Rav Sheshes, quoting Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah - explains the juxtaposition of the Pasuk in Ki Sisa ...

1. ... "Elohei Masechah Lo Sa'seh Lach" to "es Chag ha'Matzos Tishmor" - to teach us that someone who treats Chol ha'Mo'ed like an ordinary week-day, is considered as if he was guilty of idolatry.
2. ... "la'Kelev Tashlichun Oso" to "Lo Sisa Sheima Shav" - that someone who speaks Lashon ha'Ra, hears and accepts Lashon ha'Ra or gives false testimony against one's fellow-Jew deserves to be thrown to the dogs (who, in Egypt, knew when to remain silent).
(a) We recite *Hallel* on a regular basis rather than Hallel ha'Gadol, because it contains five major events:
"be'Tzeis Yisrael mi'Mitzrayim" represents Yetzi'as Mitzrayim; "ha'Yam Ra'ah va'Yanos" - Keri'as Yam-Suf; "he'Harim Rakedu che'Eilim" - Matan-Torah; "Es'halech Lifnei Hashem" - Techi'as ha'Meisim; "Lo Lanu Hashem, Lo Lanu" - the pangs of Mashi'ach.
(b) "Lo Lanu Hashem, Lo Lanu" might also refer to Shi'bud Malchi'os (our subservience to the nations of the world), or the battle of Gog and Magog.

(c) Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak ascribes the preference of Hallel over Hallel ha'Gadol to the Pasuk "Ana Hashem Maletah Nafshi" - which refers to the escape of the souls of Tzadikim from Gehinom.

(d) According to Chizkiyah, it is due to the paragraph of "Lo Lanu" and "Halelu es Hashem" - which refers to Chananyah, Misha'el and Azaryah, who were miraculously saved from the fiery furnace, and who then praised Hashem by alternating the phrases of these two paragraphs.

(a) Others say that it was Gavriel who said "ve'Emes Hashem Le'olam" - when Hashem sent him down to cool the fire of the furnace, in keeping with the promise that He had made to him a thousand years earlier, when he asked permission to save Avraham from the furnace into which Nimrod had thrown him. Hashem replied then that since Avraham was unique on earth, it was only befitting that he should be saved by Hashem, who is unique in the Heaven. He therefore promised Gavriel that he would give him the opportunity to save three of his descendants.

(b) Yurkemo, the angel of hail, volunteered to save the three Tzadikim from the furnace.

(c) Gavriel thought that *he* was better suited for the job - because it is a greater miracle by far for the angel of *fire* to cool down a furnace than it is for the angel of *hail* to do so.

(d) He subsequently came down to earth, cooled down the fire from the inside, so that the Tzadikim should come to no harm, and heat it up on the outside, to consume those who cast them in.




(a) According to Rebbi Nasan, it was the fish who said "ve'Emes Hashem Le'olam". When Yisrael rebelled at the Yam-Suf, expressing doubts as to whether the Egyptians had actually drowned, Hashem ordered the Sea to eject their bodies on to dry land for Yisrael to see. Meanwhile, the fish had been deprived of a glorious meal - and Hashem never withholds the due of any creature. Many years later, Hashem paid the fish their due (He must also have granted them long life and transferred them to the River Kishon), when He drowned Sisro and his army in the River Kishon.

(b) When promised the fish one and a half times as much - he was referring to the fact that Sisro had *nine* hundred chariots, as opposed to the *six* hundred of Par'oh.

(c) Hashem induced Sisra and his soldiers to enter the River Kishon - by sending down the stars to heat up their armor, causing them to jump into the river to cool down.

(d) The River Kishon is referred to as 'Nachal Kidumim' - because Hashem made it a guarantor from years back (Yemei *Kedem* means from days of old).

(a) Resh Lakish explains the Pasuk in Hallel "Moshivi Akeres ha'Bayis" - as a complaint from the leaders of Klal Yisrael as to how Hashem's children (the rest of Klal Yisrael, through their sins in the Galus) had humbled them and made them lowly like a weasel that dwells in the tunnels underneath the house (see also Agados Maharsha).

(b) Rava explain the Pasuk ...

1. ... "Ahavti Ki Yishma Hashem, es Koli Tachanunai" - to mean that we know that Hashem loves us, only when He answers *our prayers* (but not when He saves us from our troubles whilst at the same time, ignoring *them* - see Ya'avetz).
2. ... "Dalosi ve'Li Yehoshi'a" - to mean: 'I (Klal Yisrael) may be poor in Mitzvos, but I am still worthy of being saved'.
(a) Rebbi Yishmael b'Rebbi Yossi explained the Pasuk "Halelu es Hashem Kol Goyim ... Ki Gavar Aleinu Chasdo" - to mean that even the nations of the world should praise Hashem for the wonders and miracles that He performed with us (how much more so must *we* praise Him!).

(b) Hashem instructed Mashi'ach to accept Egypt's gift - on the grounds that they were our hosts for many years.

(c) Kush too, will send a gift. They will 'convince' Hashem that *their* gift must certainly be accepted on the grounds that if Egypt's gift was accepted, then theirs certainly should - since *they* (unlike Egypt) did not enslave Yisrael.

(d) Rome will claim that their gift should certainly be accepted, since they (unlike the previous two) are our brothers (strange, isn't it, how for two thousand years they seem to have forgotten that brotherliness, and suddenly they remember)! But Hashem will reject their claim. He will tell the angel Gavriel to scold them and to acquire Klal Yisrael.

1. ... the wild animal who dwells among the canes - is Rome (Edom).
2. ... the wild animal whose deeds are all written with one pen - also refers to Rome. 'their deeds are all written with one pen' - means that all the Romans as one man proclaim Yisrael guilty.
3. ... the strong one who resembles a calf which has no owner - refers to Yisrael whom the nations slaughter like a Hefker calf.
4. ... those who open their hand to receive money, but who fail to do the will of the owners - refers to the Romans, who accept bribery, but who then renege on their promises.
(b) It was the attempt to fight with the nations (rather than to accept their yoke) that caused Yisrael to become scattered among the nations (see Agados Maharsha).
(a) There are three hundred and sixty five main roads in Rome; each road contains three hundred and sixty five palaces and each palace contains three hundred and sixty five steps.

(b) On each step, one will find enough food to feed the entire world.

(c) All of these are for the benefit of those who are "Yoshvim Lifnei Hashem" - meaning either someone who attends the Beis-Hamedrash so regularly, that he knows exactly where everybody sits, or someone who greets his friends in Yeshivah (because he is always there first) - see Agados Maharsha.

(d) 'Atik Yomin' refers to Hashem, who was there right at the creation -and before.

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