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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Pesachim 116



(a) According to the Tana Kama, Charoses is not a Mitzvah - nevertheless, it is needed on the Seder-plate to kill the poison (or the worm).

(b) The ideal antidote against the poison in lettuce, radish and leek is hot water.

(c) Whilst the water is boiling, one should say 'Kafa Kafa! I remember you and your seven daughters and your eight daughters-in-law.'

(a) Abaye says that the Charoses should both contain apples and be made into a thick paste - the former, to remind us of the miracles that took place when the women gave birth under the apple-trees without pain, so that the Egyptians should not know about it; the latter, to remind us of the cement (for which reason the Beraisa also adds long spices such as cinamon which resembled the straw - a major ingredient in the cement of those days).

(b) The store-keepers of Yerushalayim used to announce 'Come and buy spices for a Mitzvah' - when they sold spices for the Charoses.

(a) The son poses the four Kashyos - after the second Kos is poured out (because the fact that it is poured out *here*, even though they are not about to eat, will arouse his curiosity).

(b) The alternative text to 've'*Kahn* ha'Ben Sho'el' - is ve'Chein ha'Ben Sho'el' (meaning that it is befitting for the son to ask here at this juncture).

(c) If a son is unable to ask the four Kashyos, we teach him what to say?

(d) The Tana of our Mishnah cites four Kashyos: Matzah, Maror, dipping-in and roasted meat. It is obvious that nowadays, when there is no Korban Pesach (and roasted meat is even forbidden), the fourth Kashya falls away. Instead, we ask from leaning to the left, which in the times of the Tana'im, was common practice (and was therefore not a practical Kashya), whereas today, it is *not*.

4) One is obligated to expound the Parshah of Bikurim (from Parshas Ki Savo) beginning with "Arami Oved Avi".

5) If one ...

1. ... has no son to ask the four Kashyos - then one's wife should ask them (the text in the Beraisa 'Chacham Be'no, Sho'alo, *ve'Im Eino Chacham*, Ishto Sho'alaso' appears to be a mistake - since it clashes with our Mishnah, and with the entire concept of the four sons. What the Tana appears to be saying is that if he has no sons, the wife should ask).
2. ... no wife either - then he asks *himself* (According to the Beis Halevi, this is in order to differentiate between the Hazkarah of Yetzi'as Mitzrayim that is a nightly obligation and the Hagadah of tonight's obligation).
3. ... he is a Talmid-Chacham sitting alone with another Talmid-Chacham - then each one should ask the other (so that each one explains Yetzi'as Mitzrayim through Kashyos - to fulfill the Mitzvah of Hagadah).
(a) The wording 'On all other nights we dip in *once*, but on this night, *twice*' is incorrect - because it suggests that everyone tends to dip-in once on every night of the year, and this is not true.

(b) Rava's amendment 'On all other nights, we are not obligated to dip-in even *once*, but on this night, *twice*' - is also incorrect, since this suggests that there is an obligation to dip-in twice at the Seder; whereas the first dipping-in is not an obligation at all, only to encourage the children to ask (so the term 'obligation' is inappropriate.

(c) The correct wording therefore is 'On all other nights we do not (necessarily) dip-in even *once*, but tonight, we do so *twice*.

(a) According to Shmuel - we begin Magid with 'Avadim Hayinu' (our physical shame).

(b) We rule like both?




(a) The key-note of ...
1. ... Pesach - is the distinction that Hashem made between the Egyptian first-born and the Jewish ones (Hashgachah Kelalis - the fore-runner of the concept of 'Am Segulah').
2. ... Matzah - that we were redeemed from Egypt and had to leave quickly, so the dough did not have time to rise (symbolical of the fact that they left Egypt one hundred and ninety years before the prescribed time - Tif'eres Yisrael).
3. ... Maror - the bitterness of the slavery.
(b) We learn from the Pasuk in Bo "ve'Higadta le'Vincha ... Ba'avur Zeh Asah Hashem *Li*" - the obligation to consider as if we ourselves had left Egypt (and to demonstrate it).

(c) This obligates us 'to thank Hashem, to praise, to laude and to glorify Him' etc.

(d) According to Beis Hillel - Magid ends with 'Chalamish le'Ma'yno Mayim'.

(a) Magid ends with the Berachah of Ge'ulah. According to Rebbi Tarfon, it is a short Berachah, which reads - Baruch ... Asher Ge'alanu, ve'Ga'al es Avoseinu mi'Mitzrayim'.

(b) According to Rebbi Akiva, one adds 'so may Hashem our G-d allow us to reach' - and concludes 'Ga'al Yisrael'.

(c) We rule like Rebbi Akiva - because of the principle 'Halachah ke'Rebbi Akiva me'Chaveiro' (Others however, consider Rebbi Tarfon to be a Rebbi of Rebbi Akiva - in which case, the principle does not apply here).

(d) There is no question of contending with the majority opinion of the Tana Kama - because Rebbi Tarfon and Rebbi Akiva do not argue *with* the Tana Kama; they argue as to what the Tana Kama says. Consequently, there are not *three* opinions here, but *two*.

(a) Rava says that one is obligated to insert the Pasuk "ve'Osanu Hotzi mi'Sham" - as we learned earlier, that we are obligated both to consider as if we left Egypt and to demonstrate it.

(b) One must pick up the Matzos and the Maror, but not the bone - firstly, because it the Pesach does not apply nowadays (so what is the point of saying 'Pesach Zeh'), and secondly, because it looks as if one had previously declared the animal Hekdesh (which is forbidden).

(c) Rav Acha bar Ya'akov learn from the Pasuk and "Beneinu Zeh" - that just as there, a Ben Sorer u'Moreh is not punishable if his parents are blind, so too, is a blind person not obligated to say Hagadah, since here too, the Torah writes (in Bo) "Ba'avur *Zeh*".

(d) We initially reconcile this with the fact that Rav Yosef and Rav Sheshes (who were both blind) recited the Hagadah on behalf of all the participants - by suggesting that in their opinion, Matzah nowadays is only de'Rabbanan (and it does not therefore matter if one cannot see it).

11) The Gemara concludes that according to Rav Acha bar Ya'akov, Matzah nowadays is only mi'de'Rabbanan, and in fact, Rav Yosef and Rav Sheshes could even hold that it is d'Oraysa. Nevertheless ...
1. ... Rav Acha bar Ya'akov exempts a blind man from reciting the Hagadah - because of the principle 'Kol de'Tikun Rabbanan, Ke'ein d'Oraysa Tikun' (whatever the Rabbanan instituted, they instituted with the specifications of a d'Oraysa).
2. ... Rav Yosef and Rav Sheshes recited the Hagadah on behalf of all the participants (in spite of the Pasuk of "Ba'avur Zeh") - because in our case, we learn from "Ba'avur Zeh" (not that he needs to see it, but) that one only reads the Hagadah when the Matzah is lying in front of him. By Ben Sorer u'Moreh, on the other hand, the Torah should have written "Beneinu Hu". It changed to "Beneinu Zeh", to teach us that the parents must be able to see the rebbelious son.
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