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Pesachim 110



(a) It is safe to set out on a journey after having drunk two cups of wine - provided one went out to the main road between the first and second cup.

(b) Going to sleep and relieving oneself after two cups of wine are just as dangerous as setting out on a journey.

(c) Rava kept count of the number of cups that he drank, and Abaye's stepmother held *two* cups at the ready whenever he drank *one* (even when they remained at home) - because the demons will start up with Talmidei- Chachamim anyway.

(a) The Gemara proves from the fact that Chazal instituted ten cups of wine in the house of an Avel - that Zugos goes only as far as the number eight, but not from ten and onwards.


1. ... When Rav Chisda and Rabah bar Rav Huna say 'Shalom le'Tovah Mitztaref, ve'Lo le'Ra'ah' they are trying to prove that Zugos goes only as far as six, but not from eight and upwards (because 'Shalom', the *seventh* word in the final Pasuk of Birchas Kohanim, breaks the Zugos).
2. ... Rabah and Rav Yosef ... when they say the same about 'vi'Yechuneka' - are trying to prove that Zugos go only as far as four, and no further (because'vi'Yechuneka' is the *fifth* word in the second Pasuk of Birchas Kohanim).
3. ... when Abaye and Rava say it about 've'Yishmerecha' - they are saying that Zugos stops at two, but does not apply to four or more (because 've'Yishmerecha' is the *third* word in the first Pasuk).
(c) Rava bar Liva'i came to harm, not because he drank four cups of wine - Rava maintains - but because he embarrassed him by querying him during his Derashah (Presumably, it is permitted to query the Darshan if it is to get a better understanding of what the Darshan said, but not if it is in order to catch him out).
(a) Ashmedai told Rav Yosef ...
1. ... that he was King of the demons, that in that capacity, he was in charge of all cases of Zugos, and that a King is not a criminal (according to the first Lashon) - Perhaps he meant that he *personally*, would never do any damage.
2. ... according to the second Lashon, he told him quite the opposite: that he was a quick-tempered king, who did whatever he wished, since a king has the right to break down walls should they impede his progress.
(b) The demons will kill after *two* cups, Ashmedai told Rav Papa, but not after *four*; in addition, they will strike after *two* cups, even if one drank Zugos inadvertently, whereas after *four* cups, only if one drank them deliberately.
(a) Someone who set out for a journey after inadvertently drinking two cups of wine - should take his right thumb in his left hand, and his left thumb in his right hand, and say 'You and I make three'.

(b) Should he hear the demon respond 'You and I make four' - he should reply 'You and I make five'.

(c) It happened once, when a similar battle of wits took place - that the person persevered until a hundred and one, and the Demon died.

(d) Rishtinhi advised Ameimar to say, when he met witches - 'Hot dung in torn baskets will go into your mouths. May your hair fall out, may the wind scatter your crumbs, may your spices be scattered and may the wind scatter your fresh saffron' ...




(a) Rav Dimi was fussy even about the notches that the purchaser would carve on the barrel to know how many Eifah they had purchased. He would not allow them to carve an even number of notches.

(b) It appears that someone once carved an even number of notches, and the barrel broke.

(c) When the Gemara says that the demons strike at those who are fussy, but not at those who are not - it does not mean that Zugos does not apply at all, but that the demons are easier going with those who are not fussy, but one still needs to be careful (otherwise, why does the Gemara not just ignore the issue altogether?).

(a) According to Rav Dimi, Zugos is Halachah le'Moshe mi'Sinai, but only with regard to four foods, three of which we *do* know, the fourth of which, we do *not*. Consequently, Chazal decreed all foods because of that one.

(b) The three foods that we *do* know are eggs, nuts and cucumbers.

(c) The divorced woman initially failed to bewitch her ex-husband, because he always took care not to drink an even number of cups, until one day, when he was drunk - and that was when she got him.

(d) Those who say that from four cups and onwards Zugos does *not* apply - explain that nevertheless, witchcraft *does*.

(a) Plates of food and loaves not subject to Zugos - because Zugos does not apply to any food that is manufactured, only to natural foods.

(b) The reason for this is because the three foods that we know to be subject to Zugos are all natural foods, and not manufactured, so we assume that the same will apply to the fourth food.

(c) When Rav Chinena adds that Zugos does not apply to ...

1. ... 'Chanus' - he means that Zugos does not apply if one drinks one cup of wine in one shop, and a second cup in another shop?
2. ... 'Orei'ach' - he means that by a guest, who never knows whether they will serve him any more cups or not, is constantly a Nimlach (which we are about to explain).
3. ... 'Nimlach' - he means that whenever someone changed his mind and decided to eat or drink a second one, Zugos does not apply.
4. ... 'Ishah' - he means that the danger of Zugos does not apply to a woman, because she is considered like a guest.
(d) Zugos *does* apply to an important woman.
(a) Ispargus (a beverage made of cabbage and wine) is 'Mitztaref le'Tovah, ve'Eino Mitztaref le'Ra'ah' - means that if someone drinks a cup of Ispargus after having drunk *two* cups - it removes the danger of Zugos; whereas if one drinks it after having drunk *one* cup, it will not create Zugos.

(b) Ispargus is different in this regard - because it is drunk as a cure, and can therefore not have any harmful effects (much like the Kos shel Berachah, which we discussed earlier).

(c) Some say that, by (Safek) Zugos, one goes Lechumra - meaning that someone who is uncertain as to how many cups he has drunk, should drink another one, which will have the effect of combining with the two or four cups that he already drank (since he intends it to do so; it will not however, combine with one or three cups (since he does not want it to). Others say that one goes Lekula, and refrains from drinking any more cups - because, as we learned earlier, if he is not fussy, perhaps the Demons will not bother with him either.


1. Two cups of wine and one of beer - is *not* considered Zugos.
2. Two cups of beer and one of wine - *is*. The Si'man for this is 'Zeh ha'K'lal: Kol ha'Mechubar Lo Min ha'Chamur Mimenu, Tamei (and wine, which is more precious than beer, is considered more Chamur), Min ha'Kal Mimenu, Tahor'.
(a) According to Rav Nachman quoting Rav, someone who drank *two cups* *before* the meal and *one during* the meal - the third cup combines with the first two, to remove the threat of Zugos; whereas if he drank *one cup before* the meal and *two during* the meal - the cup that he drank *before* the meal will not remove the threat of Zugos from the two cups that he drank *during* the meal (since he drank Zugos *during* the meal).

(b) We are concerned not about remedying the *table*, asks Rav Mesharshaya, but the *person*? Consequently, it makes no difference whether he drank the *two* cups before the meal and the third cup during the meal or vice-versa; either way, the third cup should remove the threat of Zugos.

(c) Even Rav Mesharshaya will agree however, that one cup after the meal will not rectify the two cups that one drank during the meal - this we know from the episode brought in ha'Socher es ha'Po'alim, where they had to *bring the table back* for Rabah bar Nachmeini to drink a third cup, to dispel the danger of Zugos, implying that, had they not done so, the third cup would have been ineffective (since it was drunk *after* the meal).

(a) According to Rav Yehudah Amar Rav, a cup of any diluted drink will combine with one or two cups of diluted wine (for better or for worse) - except for water.

(b) Diluted water means a mixture of hot and cold water.

(c) Rebbi Yochanan says that even diluted water combines with other diluted drinks.

(d) Rebbi Yochanan agrees that pouring hot water into hot or cold water into cold, is not called diluted in this regard.

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