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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Pesachim 107



(a) Ameimar went hungry one Motza'ei Shabbos - because they brought him beer instead of wine for Havdalah.

(b) When they brought him beer again the following year, he realized that this was no mere co-incidence, and that beer must be the local beverage (Chamar Medinah), in which case it was permitted to use it in place of wine, assuming that wine was unavailable.

(c) One cannot recite Havdalah over water - even if there is no wine.

(a) We also learn from Ameimar: 1. that even if one mentioned Havdalah in Tefilah, one is obligated to repeat it over a cup of wine and 2. that one is forbidden to eat before Havdalah.

(b) We do not include the Halachah of drinking local drinks (Chamar Medinah), there where no wine is available - either because it is not connected specifically with the Dinim of the Havdalah ceremony, or because it is obvious that it is better to recite Havdalah over beer (which after all, bears the title '*Chamar* Medinah' - local *wine*) than not to recite it at all.

(a) Rav Huna ask his Rebbes whether beer made from barley, figs and berries may be used for Kidush. Rebbi replied that he did not know?

(b) Rav Huna derived from there - that if Rebbi was uncertain about using the above kinds of beer for Kidush, then how much more so would he be uncertain about *date*-beer (which was an inferior beer).

(c) Whatever is not eligible for Kidush, is not eligible for Havdalah either.

(a) When Rebbi tasted the date-beer that Levi sent him - he found it so appetizing that he declared it to be fit for Kidush, and to sing all the songs of praise in the world.

(b) He changed his mind when (like with Ula Daf 88a), they caused him stomach-pains the following night.

(a) Rava advocated that one rather drink the water in which one soaked flax, than date-beer.

(b) Rava issued a curse of poverty on anyone who makes Kidush over beer - when wine is available. *He* tried to save money by not purchasing the more expensive wine, said Rava so Hashem will pay him back, that he should not have enough money to buy wine.

(c) When Rav saw Rav Huna making Havdalah over beer - he asked him whether he had taken a liking to beer, and whether he had perhaps begun to manufacture it and business was going well.

(a) According to Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon, one needs to drink no more than a Kol Shehu from the Kidush wine. The Halachah however, is like Rebbi Yossi bar Yehudah - who requires a cheek-full (a Me'lo Lugma) - which is the equivalent to a majority of a Revi'is.

(b) Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak claims that it was neither Rav Gidal de'Min Neresh, nor Rav Gidal bar Menashyah etc., who quoted a Beraisa that held like Rebbi Yossi bar Yehudah, but Rav Gidal - It is important to know this, so that, should we find a contradiction in his words, we should be able to point out the discrepancy.




(a) Chazal might have forbidden starting a meal from Samuch le'Minchah Gedolah - to ensure that nobody gets caught up in his meal, and forgets to bring the Korban Pesach.

(b) Should the prohibition be from Samuch le'Minchah Ketanah - the Gemara here gives the reason because one might come to eat Matzah Achilah Gasah (eating on a full stomach - see Tosfos DH 'Dilma', and the Rashbam both in our Mishnah DH 'Lo Yochal Adam' and later on the Amud, DH 'Mahu de'Seima').

(c) According to the latter side of the Sha'leh, the Rabbanan were more concerned about eating *Matzah* ba'Achilah Gasah, than they were about Pesach - either because Matzah applies nowadays too (whereas Pesach does not), or because it takes far less to remove a person's appetite for a dry piece of Matzah than for a juicy piece of roasted lamb.

(a) It would appear from the Beraisa, which says that even Agripas (who normally ate in the ninth hour) was forbidden to eat until nightfall on Erev Pesach - that the decree not to eat is from Minchah Ketanah, because then the Chidush would be that, although the period of Isur had not yet begun, Agripas was nevertheless forbidden to begin eating, since he (who had not yet eaten - more than anyone else) was bound to run into the time when eating is prohibited (hence the phrase *'even* Agripas'). But if the decree already began at Minchah Gedolah, when eating was long forbidden, why does the Tana say 'even Agripas'. Why might we have thought that Agripas would be different than anybody else?

(b) The Gemara counters this proof by pointing out that even if the decree begins only with Minchah Ketanah - it is nevertheless obvious that Agripas would be forbidden to begin eating from the ninth hour, since, as we explained, he is bound to eat after the beginning of the tenth hour - and in such a case, even Rebbi Yossi will agree that one is not permitted to continue eating after that time.

(c) 'Mahu de'Seima, Tesha Sha'os le'Agripas ke'Arba Sha'os le'Didan Dami' - means that the ninth hour of Agripas (who always ate then) might be considered like the fourth hour (which is the time that most people eat) of everybody else. Consequently, one would not suspect that Agripas might not eat Matzah with a good appetite. The Chidush is that we do not consider the ninth hour of Agripas like everybody's fourth hour.

(a) 'Aval Matbil Hu be'Miynei Targima' - means that one may eat species of fruit and meat even after Samuch le'Minchah Ketanah (the reason that Rebbi Asi uses the word 'Matbil' is because they would usually eat by dipping their bread into condiments etc.

(b) This is permitted because - these things do not tend to satisfy a person as easily as bread and cake etc. (According to Tosfos DH 'Minei Targima', Minei Targima refers specifically to (Mezonos) foods made from the five types of grain.)

(c) Rebbi Yitzchak used to eat vegetables on Erev Pesach afternoon - because, not only do vegetables not satisfy a person, but they also increase his appetite (like an aperitif).

(d) The Beraisa permits a Shamash (on Erev Pesach afternoon) to serve the guests B'nei Me'ayim. This refers to the stomachs of animals that were Shechted for the Yom-Tov meal, and not to those of the Pesach or the Chagigas-Arba'ah Asar.

(a) the Gemara proves from the Pasuk in Yirmiyah "Niyru Lachem Nir, ve'Al Tizre'u El Kotzim" - that just as one needs to plow the ground before sowing will have any affect, so too, must one prepare the stomach for eating, by taking an aperitif.

(b) The Tana will later permit drinking wine between the first and second, and second and third cups of wine, but not, between the third and fourth cup - because in the former case, drinking wine helps to develop one's appetite before eating Matzah; whereas between the third and fourth cups, where this is no longer necessary, they forbade drinking wine. The reason for this is that, seeing as there is no positive reason to drink wine, it looks as if one is adding to the four cups.

(c) Rava cites this here to prove that wine serves as an aperitif, and increases one's appetite - provided, that is, that one drinks a lot of itc.

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