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Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Pesachim 106

PESACHIM 106 - dedicated by Uri Wolfson in honor of his Chavrusa, Rav Mordechai Rabin of Har Nof.



(a) After learning the obligation to recite Kidush by day, from the Pasuk "Zachor es Yom ha'Shabbos le'Kadesho", the Tana asks from where we learn the obligation by night. This is incorrect - firstly because the primary Kidush is said by night, and not by day! and secondly, because the Beraisa does not go on to cite a source for Kidush by night.

(b) We learn from the Pasuk as such, the obligation to recite Kidush at night-time, as soon as Shabbos enters.

(c) We learn Kidush by day from the extra word "Yom" in "Zachor es *Yom* ha'Shabbos le'Kadesho".

(d) Kidush by day comprises the Berachah 'Borei P'ri ha'Gafen' (the Pesukim that we add are only a Minhag), and the reason that we recite it is to make a distinction between Shabbos and an ordinary week-day - because wine symbolizes Shir, and it is as if one is singing in honor of the Shabbos.

(a) Kidusha Rabah refers to the Berachah of 'Borei P'ri ha'Gafen - it is called by that name because we always recite it by so many Devarim she'bi'Kedushah. (Others say that it is a Lashon 'Sagi Nahor' - i.e. it is really the opposite, a minor Kidush, and in its honor, they referred to it by that name?).

(b) Rav Ashi (perhaps guessing that 'Kidusha Rabah' may refer to the Berachah 'Borei Pri ha'Gafen') escaped from his predicament - by drawing out the Berachah whilst he watched the participants, until he saw one old man bending down to drink from his Kos. So Rav concluded that 'Kidusha Rabah' must indeed refer to 'Borei Pri ha'Gafen'.

(c) He quoted the Pasuk in Koheles (regarding himself) "he'Chacham' Einav be'Rosho".

(d) Had that old man not bent down to drink the wine when he did - Rav Ashi would have recited the *full* Kidush, like that of Friday night.

(a) Rebbi Zeira interpreted the words of Rebbi Chiya's sons, who said that Havdalah may still be recited the entire week - to mean until Wednesday.

(b) We must explain 'until Wednesday' as being exclusive - because it is only Sunday, Monday and Tuesday that belong to the previous week, Wednesday already belongs to the following week.

(c) The distinction between the two halves of the week apply to Gitin as well - inasmuch as if someone divorces his wife on the condition that she gives him two hundred Zuz *after* Shabbos, then the money will have to be given before Wednesday for the Get to be valid; whereas had he said '*before* Shabbos', then the money would have had to be handed over between Wednesday and Shabbos.

(d) The concession of reciting Havdalah until Tuesday does not extend to the Berachah of 'Ner' - because the Berachah over Ner is confined to Motza'ei Shabbos. Why is that? Because that was when artificial light was first created.




(a) Rav Beruna quoting Rav, forbids someone who has already washed his hands (for bread) to recite Kidush - because he interrupted between washing and eating.

(b) If, in spite of that, he does recite Kidush after washing his hands - he will be obligated to wash his hands again.

(c) This is not the case however, if he hears Kidush from someone else - seeing as *he* did not interrupt (in spite of the fact that he was Yotze because of 'Shomei'a ke'Oneh').

(d) If someone who has already washed his hands (for bread) may not recite Kidush (which *is* related to the Se'udah), then how much more so may he not recite Havdalah (which is *not*).

(a) Rav himself often used to recite Kidush, not over wine, but (whenever he fancied bread) over bread; and whenever he did, the Gemara takes for granted that he must have washed his hands first. Nevertheless, he recited Kidush *before* making the Berachah of ha'Motzi.

(b) That being the case, even someone who washed his hands before Kidush, which he then recited over wine - would not be obligated to wash his hands either.

(c) We nevertheless do not do this Lechatchilah - because we rule like Beis Hillel in Berachos, who puts Kidush first.

(d) Someone who has no wine cannot recite Havdalah over bread.

(a) Someone who ate on Friday night without reciting Kidush - must recite the full Kidush during Shabbos day-time.

(b) Rav Yirmiyah bar Aba forgot one Motza'ei Shabbos, and ate before Havdalah. When they brought him a cup of wine to drink - he used it for Havdalah.

(c) The wife of Rav Asi (his host) complained because that was not the Minhag of her husband (who holds 'Ta'am, Eino Mavdil' - and he should not have adopted a different Minhag than that of the local household).

(d) Rav Asi told his wife to leave Rav Yirmiyah bar Aba alone - because he probably followed the opinion of his Rebbi, Rav (who held 'Ta'am Mavdil)!

(a) In Rav Yosef's opinion, Shmuel holds 'Ta'am, Eino Mekadesh, Ta'am, Eino Mavdil'. Rabah in the name of Rav Nachman quotes him as saying - 'Ta'am Mekadesh, Ta'am Mavdil'.

(b) Rava rules like Rabah.

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