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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Pesachim 104



(a) The Berachah of Havdalah should contain not less than three items and not more than seven.

(b) The problem with our Nusach ('ha'Mavdil Bein Kodesh le'Chol, Bein Or le'Choshech, Bein Yisrael la'Amim, Bein Yom ha'Shevi'i le'Sheshes Yemei ha'Ma'aseh') - is that this is neither three items nor seven, and, since Chazal explicitly mentioned those two numbers, the Nusach ought to comprise either the one or the other.

(c) The fourth item ('Bein Yom ha'Shevi'i le'Sheshes Yemei ha'Ma'aseh', is not really an intrinsic part of Havdalah, but is inserted because it is the Minhag to insert a final item that resembles the final Berachah.

(a) Rav Yehudah Amar Shmuel says that the last item in Havdalah before the final Berachah must resemble the final Berachah (as we just explained).

(b) According to the Pumbedisa'i, the last item in Havdalah before the final Berachah must resemble, not the *final* Berachah, but the *first* item in the list (which in the case of the regular Havdalah, duplicates with the final Berachah)?

(c) This Machlokes is not confined to Havdalah, but will apply equally to all Berachos that comprise a number of items.

(d) The difference between the two opinions manifests itself on a Yom-Tov which falls on Motza'ei Shabbos, when the text of the final Berachah reads 'Hamavdil Bein Kodesh le'Kodesh'. The opening item on the list remains unchanged ('Hamavdil Bein Kodesh le'Chol'); whereas according to Rav Yehudah Amar Shmuel, we will have to add just before the final Berachah 'Bein Kedushas Shabbos li'Kedushas Yom-Tov Hivdalta' etc.

(a) There is no Havdalah between Shabbos and Yom-Tov and between Yom-Tov and Chol ha'Mo'ed - because Havdalah comes to divide between a more stringent Kedushah to a lesser one, and not vice-versa.

(b) According to Rebbi Menachem bar Sima'i, the Berachah for Havdalah contains only *one* item (lke the opinion of Rebbi).

(c) Rebbi Menachem bar Sima'i bore the title 'B'nan shel Kedoshim' - because he never looked at the image on a coin (due to a Chumra in Avodah-Zarah) - see Tosfos DH 'de'Lo'.

(a) Of the four additional items mentioned, Bein ha'Yam le'Charavah is not mentioned in the Torah, and must therefore be omitted from the list.

(b) 'Bein Kohanim la'Levi'im le'Yisraelim' - is not *one* distinction, but *two*, between the Kohanim and the Levi'im, and between the Levi'im and the Yisrael'im; both of these are mentioned in the Torah, the former, in Divrei Hayamim "B'nei Amram, Aharon u'Moshe, va'Yavdel Aharon le'Hakdisho", and the latter, in Eikev "ba'Eis ha'Hi Havdil Hashem es Sheivet ha'Levi".

(c) The only one of all the Havdolos that is not mentioned in the Torah is the last one: 'Bein Yom ha'Shevi'i le'Sheshes Yemei ha'Ma'aseh'. This is quite in order - because it is not an intrinsic part of Havdalah, but the section that is inserted there because it is similar to the final Berachah.

(d) We might say ...

1. ... 'Baruch Soder Bereishis' on Motza'ei Shabbos - because it was on Motza'ei Shabbos that the world that had just been completed (on Shabbos) first began to operate.
2. ... 'Baruch Mekadesh Yisrael' to conclude Havdalah - because Yisrael is the only nation that Hashem sanctified; He *divided* them from the rest of the world..
(a) Abaye cursed anyone who uses the Nusach of 'Mekadesh Yisrael'. Presumably he follows the opinion of Shmuel - according to whom the Nusach of the final Berachah of Havdalah is 'Baruch ... Hamavdil Bein Kodesh le'Chol'.

(b) Rebbi Yehoshua ben Chananyah says about anyone who concludes 'Mekadesh Yisrael ve'h'Mavdil Bein Kodesh la'Chol' - that he will live a long time.

(c) We do not rule like ...

1. ... Rebbi Yehoshua - because of the principle 'Ein Chosmin bi'Shenayim' (one does not conclude a Berachah with two issues).
2. ... Rav (in preference to Shmuel) - since Abaye issued a curse on anybody who concludes like Rav.
6) On Motza'ei Yom-Tov that falls on Shabbos - we conclude 'Hamavdil Bein Kodesh le'Kodesh.




(a) Abaye learn from Ula when he (Ula) came to Pumbedisa - that one only needs to recite 'Baruch ... Hamavdil Bein Kodesh le'Chol' for Havdalah and no more (like Rebbi and Rebbi Menachem ben Sima'i on the previous Daf).

(b) Rav Yehudah was angry with his son Rav Yitzchak - because, instead of going himself to make this discovery, he sent Abaye.

(c) By the fact that this Halachah was now quoted in Abaye's name, and not in that of Rav Yitzchak b'Rav Yehudah - Abaye gained that whenever this would be quoted after his death, his lips would move (and repeat Divrei Torah) in the grave.

(a) Birchos ha'Mitzvos and Birchos ha'Peiros do not end with a Berachah - because they are too short to insert another Berachah.

(b) Berachos ha'Semuchos la'Chavertan end with a Berachah but do not begin with one.

(c) Despite the fact that the Berachah of 'Ga'al Yisrael' follows the Shema, it is nevertheless considered a Berachah ha'Semuchah la'Chavertah - because it also follows the Berachah before the Shema (and the Shema is not considered a break between the two Berachos).

(d) The fourth Berachah of Birchas ha'Mazon ('ha'Tov ve'ha'Meitiv') begins with a Berachah - in spite of the fact that it follows the third Berachah of Birchas ha'Mazon - because, due to the fact that it is mi'de'Rabbanan (as opposed to the other three Berachos, which are d'Oraysa), it is considered an independent Berachah.

9) Despite the fact that the Berachah of Havdalah does not appear to fit into any of the above-mentioned categories - Ula (whose Birchas Havdalah consisted exclusively of 'ha'Mavdil Bein Kodesh le'Chol') nevertheless did not end with a Berachah, because, like the Birchos ha'Mitzvos, it is too short to add a second Berachah.

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