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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Pesachim 102



(a) The Rabbanan say that the group that left the wine party to greet a Chasan and Kalah - do not require a Berachah Acharonah when they leave, neither do they require a fresh Berachah when they return.

(b) We know that Rebbi Yehudah (who qualifies the Rabbanan's statement with the words 'Bameh Devarim Amurim'), comes to *argue* with them, and not merely to *qualify* their words - because, whereas the 'Eimasai' of Rebbi Yehudah comes to qualify, 'Bameh Devarim Amurim' comes to argue.

(a) From the fact that the Rabbanan argue with Rebbi Yehudah specifically by things that require a Berachah Acharonah in their place - we deduce that by things that do *not*, require a Berachah Acharonah, a Berachah Acharonah is required before leaving one's place, and a fresh Berachah is required when they return (or if they decide to eat in their new place).

(b) This Beraisa does not pose a Kashya on Rebbi Yochanan, who said above that wine never needs a fresh Berachah - because, in his opinion, the Beraisa does not differentiate between things that require a Berachah Acharonah in their place, and things that do *not* (neither of which require a fresh Berachah). The reason that the Beraisa mentions 'Akru' (inferring things that require a Berachah Acharonah in their place), to teach us that even there, Rebbi Yehudah requires a fresh Berachah.

(c) It would not be preferable to argue by things which do not require a Berachah Acharonah in their place, to teach us that, even there, no fresh Berachah is required - in keeping with the principle 'Ko'ach de'Heteira Adif' - because the logic behind 'Ko'ach de'Heteira Adif' is that to permit something requires more clarity and conviction (before permitting something which appears to be forbidden - after all, it is easy to say 'Asur'). Here, the reverse is true: that it requires more clarity to be stringent and to say 'Recite a fresh Berachah'! despite the fact that it is a Chumra, than to be lenient and to exempt from reciting a fresh Berachah.

(a) If a group of people are eating together on Friday afternoon and Shabbos enters, then, as regards Kidush and Birchas ha'Mazon according to ...
1. ... Rebbi Yehudah - they first recite Kidush over one cup of wine, and then Birchas ha'Mazon (since, according to him, they are obligated to stop eating, as we learnt at the beginning of the Perek).
2. ... Rebbi Yossi - they continue to eat until nightfall. They then recite Birchas ha'Mazon over the first cup, and Kidush over the second one (Note: The fact that they recite Kidush immediately after the meal constitutes 'Kidush be'Makom Se'udah - see Tosfos DH 'Rishon').
(b) According to Rebbi Yehudah, the reason that one recites Kidush first - is because, oce Kidush falls due, we do not want to delay it ('Ein Ma'avirin Al ha'Mitzvos').


4) Birchas ha'Mazon and Kidush cannot both be recited over the same cup of wine ...

1. ... according to Rebbi Yehudah - because, since one is obligated to stop eating, the Se'udah is therefore not a Se'udas Shabbos, and it is obvious that the same Kos cannot cover Kidush and Birchas ha'Mazon. (Note: After Birchas ha'Mazon, he will be obligated to wash and eat again - his Se'udas Shabbos.)
2. ... according to Rebbi Yossi - because 'Ein Osin Mitzvos (u'Berachos) Chavilos Chavilos' - which in turn, is because it looks as if he considers the Berachos a burden.
(a) We recite the Berachah over wine before that of Kidush and Havdalah - because of the principle 'Tadir ve'she'Eino Tadir, Tadir Kodem'.

(b) In the Havdalah service, the actual Berachah of Havdalah comes last - in order to postpone the going out of Shabbos and Yom-Tov for a little longer.

(c) The author of the Beraisa which gives the Berachah of Ner precedence to that of Besamim - is Beis Shamai (according to Rebbi Yehudah).

(a) If one has only one cup of wine for both Havdalah and Birchas ha'Mazon - the Tana of the Beraisa expects one to wait until after one's meal, and to recite both Havdalah and Birchas ha'Mazon over that cup.

(b) This is not a contradiction to the principle of 'Ein Osin Mitzvos Chavilos Chavilos' - which is only Lechatchilah, but does not apply when one has no choice, such as in our case, when he only has one Kos.

(a) *Ya*k*ne*h - is the acronym of Yayin, Kidush, Ner, Havdalah.

(b) Since one is using only one Kos for both Kidush and Havdalah, this appears to clash with the principle of 'Ein Osin Mitzvos Chavilos Chavilos'.

(c) It appears from the fact that Rav does not mention Zeman ('Shehechiyanu') - that he must be speaking on the seventh day of Pesach, when it is feasible to say that he has used up all his wine, and has only one cup left - and we have already explained that in such a case, there is no problem with 'Ein Osin Mitzvos Chavilos Chavilos'.

(d) We refute this answer from Abaye, who says *Ya*k*ze*na*h, and from Rava who says *Ya*k*ne*ha*z - which speak even on the first day of Yom-Tov, and yet they hold that one recites both Kidush and Havdalah over the same Kos? So the Kashya remains.

8) We ultimately make a distinction between Havdalah and Kidush, on the one hand, which are both Mitzvos of similar content - both come to sanctify Shabbos and Yom-Tov, once when they come in, and once when they go out (therefore they can share one Kos); whereas Havdalah and Birchas ha'Mazon on the other hand, are two separate Mitzvos which are unconnected. Therefore, they require two separate Kosos.


(a) None of the Amora'im who discuss the order of Kidush and Havdalah, mention Besamim - because it is not necessary to smell Besamim on Motza'ei Shabbos when it is followed by Yom-Tov.

(b) The reason for this is because on Yom-Tov, like on Shabbos, one merits a Neshamah Yeseirah, and does not therefore, require Besamim. This is due to the fact that, the sole reason for the Berachah over Besamim is because, following the departure of the Neshamah Yeseirah, a person feels weak -so he takes Besamim as a sort of smelling salts to revive himself (See also Tosfos DH 'Rav Amar').

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