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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Pesachim 99



(a) The proof from our Mishnah that 'silence is golden' - is from the last case of the Reisha (when neither the Sheli'ach nor the members of the group asked each other to Shecht on the other's behalf); because there, each one's Pesach is independent of the other, and the problems that cause its having to be burned in the other cases do not exist there.

(b) Shlomoh ha'Melech said in Mishlei, that, when a fool is silent, he can pass as a wise man - *that* is what a fool gains by his silence?

(a) Rebbi Yehudah learns from the Pasuk in Bo "ve'Im Yim'at ha'Bayis Miheyos mi'Seh" - that even though the members of a Pesach are permitted to withdraw from the Pesach, one of the original members must remain with his Pesach.

(b) According to Rebbi Yossi, the Pasuk teaches us that all the members of the group may retract, provided they do not leave the Pesach without an owner.

(c) In the final case in our Mishnah, the Tana permits the single original owner of a Korban Pesach to retract, leaving a new owner as the only designee. This does not appear to conform with Rebbi Yehudah, who requires at least one of the original owners to remain with the Pesach. The author would therefore seem to be Rebbi Yossi.

(d) Rebbi Yochanan explains that in this case, even Rebbi Yehudah will agree. That is because, since Rebbi Yehudah himself forbids the Pesach to be Shechted when it has only one owner, the case in our Mishnah demanded a second man to be added to the group, and it is therefore as if he was part of the original membership to begin with.

3) From the fact that the final case in the Mishnah speaks specifically when each of the five groups consists of at least five members, says Rav Ashi, it is clear that the author cannot be Rebbi Yossi. Because according to Rebbi Yossi, why could the group of four not designate a new member, and proceed as prescribed? Therefore the author must be Rebbi Yehudah, who requires at least one of the original members to remain with the Pesach, and if they were to designate a new member, and then split up into five, it is possible that the new member will be the one to remain with the original Pesach.

***** Hadran Alach, 'Mi she'Hayah'! *****



***** Perek Arvei Pesachim *****


(a) One may not eat a meal on Erev Pesach half an hour before Minchah Ketanah (i.e. from the beginning of the tenth hour - three hours before nightfall) - in order to be able to eat the Matzah of Mitzvah with an appetite (which is a Hidur Mitzvah). (Note: the Tana adds 'until nightfall', because in the case of Erev Shabbos and other Arvei Yom-Tov, one is permitted to begin eating *before* nightfall. Pesach night is the exception due to the Pasuk in Bo "ve'Achlu es ha'Basar ba'Laylah ha'Zeh" - and Matzah and Maror are compared to Pesach).

(b) What the Tana comes to forbid after Samuch le'Minchah, is Matzah Ashirah (Matzah that is made with egg or fruit-juice - and which was not forbidden from the morning since one can, in any event, not use it for Matzas Mitzvah).

(c) Even a poor man is obligated to lean by the Seder - in spite of the fact that it may look somewhat artificial.

(a) A Tamchuy is a soup-kitchen, and it is only the very poor (who do not even have food for two meals) who receive from it.

(b) The officers of Tzedakah are indeed obligated to give someone who receives from the Tamchuy, four cups of wine (even though the four cups are only mi'de'Rabbanan.

(c) A poor man, who, for whatever reason, does not receive four cups of wine from the officers of Tzedakah - is obligated to obtain sufficient wine for four cups by selling his (excess) clothes, if need be, or by borrowing money or hiring himself out.

(d) The four cups of wine symbolize the four expressions that the Torah uses in Va'eira "ve'Hotzeisi, ve'Hitzalti, va'Ga'alti ve'Lakachti" (which in turn, represent the four stages of the redemption: 1. the downing of tools; 2. the Exodus from Egypt; 3. the drowning of the Egyptians; 4. the Giving of the Torah.

(a) Rebbi Yehudah forbids eating a meal every Erev Shabbos or Yom-Tov from Minchah Ketanah and onwards - in order that Kidush and the Shabbos and Yom- Tov meals should be dear to him.

(b) So we initially establish our Mishnah (which confines this prohibition to Erev Pesach), like Rebbi Yossi - who says that on Erev Shabbos and Erev Yom-Tov one may eat right up to nightfall.

(c) Erev Pesach is different because of the obligation to eat Matzah (Min ha'Torah, whereas the obligation to eat bread on Shabbos and Yom-Tov is only mi'de'Rabbanan - see also Mitzpeh Eisan).

(d) Mar Zutra reconciles Rebbi Yehudah (who just forbade in a Beraisa, eating on Erev Shabbos and Yom-Tov only from Minchah Ketanah, after nine and a half hours) with another Beraisa (where he forbids it already half an hour earlier i.e. from the *beginning* of the tenth hour) - by amending the latter Beraisa to read 'from nine and a half hours'.

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