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Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Pesachim 94



(a) If someone is standing outside Modi'in at the time of Shechitas ha'Pesach, and is offered a lift into Yerushalayim (enabling him to arrive in time for the Shechitah), he is not Chayav Kares if he refuses it - because the Torah writes 'u'va'Derech *Lo* Hayah ... ve'Nichresah', and he *was*!

(b) On the other hand, if he is standing within Modi'in, and cannot arrive on time because his car (with his family inside) is blocked by heavy traffic, if he is able to leave his car and walk alone on foot, he will be Chayav Kares - because the Torah writes 'u'va'Derech *Lo* Hayah ... ve'Nichresah' and he was *not*!

(a) According to Rava, the world (from east where the sun rises, to the west, where it sets) is six thousand Parsah - twenty-four thousand Mil (kilometers) wide, and the thickness of the sky, one thousand Parsah.

(b) We know from Rebbi Yochanan that a person walks ten Parsah a day, and from Rava's tradition that the width of the world is six thousand Parsah. Considering that one walks five Mil from dawn-break until sunrise, and the same distance from sunset until nightfall, this leaves a person to walk thirty Mil between sunrise and sunset. In other words, he walks one sixth of the distance during the period between dawn-break and sunrise, that he walks from sunrise until sunset. In that case, the sun too, must travel during that period (between dawn-break and sunrise), one sixth of the distance that it travels between sunrise and sunset - i.e. one thousand Parsah.

(c) The sun travels one thousand Parsah (from dawn-break until sunrise) during the time it takes an average person to walk five Mil.

(a) The Gemara proves Ula and Rava both wrong from Rebbi Yehudah, who says in a Beraisa that a person walks ten Parsah a day, but that, between dawn- break and sunrise he walks, not *five* Mil (a *sixth* of the day's total), but *four* (a *tenth*).

(b) Rebbi Yochanan, on whose statement both Amora'im based their reckonings, is vindicated - because he only made the statement that a person walks ten Parsah daily, and it was other Amora'im who split the day into three as above, not Rebbi Yochanan himself.

(a) Rebbi Chanina (who says that from Sedom to Tzo'ar is *five* Mil) will also agree that between dawn-break and sunrise a person walks *four* Milin; However, the angels who accompanied Lot were rushing from the stricken Sedom, so they managed to travel *five* Mil in the time that a walking person would only have walked *four*.

(b) If Egypt is 400 Parsah by 400 Parsah, and Kush, the world, Gan Eden and Gehinom, each one, sixty times larger than the previous one - then the world is clearly more than 6,000 Parsah wide.

(c) We see with our own eyes that the inhabited world is at least one thousand Parsah. So, if as the Beraisa says, 'the inhabited world (Earth) is situated underneath one star', then had there been just six stars in the sky, then the entire world from East to West (including the section that is outside Earth) would already be six thousand Parsah - but there are far more than six stars side by side in the sky! So how can Rava give the size of the world as six thousand Parsah?

(a) Nimrod was responsible for the entire world rebelling against G-d - by proposing the building of the Tower of Bavel.

(b) When Hashem reminded Nevuchadnetzar of his ancestry after he tried to emulate G-d Himself, by flying into the air on a thick cloud (similar to the sin of his ancestor Nimrod).

(c) The distance from ...

  1. ... the earth to the first of the seven heavens - is five hundred years (walking distance) - over nine million miles.
  2. ... one heaven to the next is the same.
  3. ... the east, where the sunrises, to the west, where it sets - is the same - five hundred years distance from the earth.
(d) But didn't Rava say earlier that the world is only six thousand Parsah wide?



(a) Rebbi attempted to prove the gentile sages, who maintain that the Mazalos remain static, and it is Galgal that turns, wrong, from the fact that Taurus is never seen in the south, or Scorpio in the north.

(b) Rav Acha bar Ya'akov answers the question by comparing it to the metal that is stuck in the middle of the wide hole of the mill - which moves on its own axis, and not together with the mill-stone. So too, are the Mazalos placed in their own wheel within that of Galgal, and they do not move together with Galgal.

(c) In his second answer, he compares the Galgal and the Mazalos to a door- socket and the lintel. Like the metal in the hole of the mill-wheel, the door-socket does not swivel together with the door, and if one were to swivel it, the door would not swing with it.

(d) The Jewish sages contend that it is the Mazalos that move, and that the Galgal remains static. They do not however, move full circle, only slightly, to the next Mazel and back, as they serve the sun.

(a) According to the non-Jewish sages, the sun travels below the earth during the night. Rebbi conceded that the non-Jewish sages were right - because by day the water-springs are cold (when the sun is far away from them), and by night (when the sun is close to them) they are hot.

(b) The river-water nevertheless becomes warm by day, due to the fact that it has flowed far from its source, and has had a chance to become heated from the general warmth that pervades during the day.

(c) According to Rebbi Nasan, the world is hot in the summer, and the fountains cold, because the sun shines in the middle of the sky (far from the fountain-water and close to the earth); whereas in the winter, when the sun shines at the side of the world (close to the fountain-water, and far from the earth) it is the other way round, the world is cold and the fountain-water, hot.

8) The sun's strength is directed ...
  1. ... towards the mountains in Nisan, Iyar and Sivan - in order to melt the snow.
  2. ... through inhabited country in Tamuz, Av and Elul - to ripen the fruit.
  3. ... over the sea in Tishri, Mar-cheshvan and Kislev - to dry up the rivers.
  4. ... across the desert in Teves, Shevat and Adar - to dry the seeds. Note: these four correspond to the four seasons (Agados Maharsha).
(a) Abaye reconciles Rebbi Eliezer in our Mishnah (who says that anyone who is not inside the Azarah during the entire period of Shechitas ha'Pesach, is Patur from Kares, in spite of the fact that he is able to enter) with his own statement, that a grown-up Areil who is able to circumcise, and who fails to do so on Erev Pesach, is Chayav Kares for not bringing the Korban Pesach (since he could have done so) - by differentiating between the Derech Rechokah of a Tahor (whom the Torah exempts) and that of a Tamei (or of an Areil) which it does not - see end of 93b.

(b) The Tana Kama of Rebbi Yossi bar Rebbi Yehudah learns Pesach from a Gezeirah Shavah "Richuk Makom" "Richuk Makom" from Ma'aser Sheini - that Richuk Makom by Pesach means outside the walls of Yerushalayim).

(c) Rav Yitzchak bar Rav Yosef, who says that in order to become a Pesach ha'Ba b'Tum'ah, one requires a majority of those standing *in the Azarah* to be Tamei (and does not contend with those standing outside), holds like Rebbi Eliezer in our Mishnah it is not clear though, how Temei'im are permitted to enter the Azarah in the first place).

(d) Rebbi Yossi Hagelili learns from the Pasuk in Beha'aloscha "u'va'Derech Lo Hayah" that (since the word Rechokah is omitted here) any Derech is sufficient to be called a Derech Rechokah, even just outside the Azarah - like Rebbi Eliezer.

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