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Pesachim 93



(a) Rebbi Akiva says in a Beraisa that in the same way as someone who is Tamei could have brought the Pesach through a Sheli'ach, only the Torah forbade it, so too, did the Torah forbid a Derech Rechokah to send his Pesach through a Sheli'ach, even though he could have otherwise have done so.

(b) Rav Nachman argues that *that* may be the opinion of Rebbi Akiva, who holds 'Ein Shochtin ve'Zorkin Al Tamei Sheretz', but that *he* holds like the Tana'im who hold 'Shochtin ve'Zorkin'. Consequently, both a Tamei Sheretz and a Derech Rechokah, who will be able to eat the Pesach, may send it through a Sheli'ach.

(a) The Tana of the Beraisa explains that the Torah needs to obligate specifically Derech Rechokah (as an example of O'nes), to bring the Pesach Sheini, so as to teach us that he is Patur from Kares (which Meizid is not). Had he held like Rav Sheshes, then he should have said that the Torah needs to obligate Derech Rechokah, to inform us that even if he sent his Pesach through a Sheli'ach, he is not Yotze, and remains Chayav to bring the Pesach Sheini.

(b) The author of the Beraisa which lists Nidos and Zavos among those who are obligated to bring the Pesach Sheini - is Rebbi Yossi, who holds that women are obligated to bring the Pesach Sheini; whereas the author of the Beraisa which lists only Zavin and Bo'alei Nidos, but not Zavos and Nidos - is Rebbi Yehudah or Rebbi Shimon, neither of whom obligate a woman to bring a Pesach Sheini.

(a) 'Chayav Kares Al ha'Rishon, ve'Chayav Kares Al ha'Sheini, Divrei Rebbi' could mean that someone who is Meizid on either the Pesach Rishon or the Pesach Sheini and Shogeg on the other, is Chayav Kares, and it could also mean that if a non-Jew converted between Pesach Rishon and Pesach Sheini, he is obligated to bring the Pesach Sheini.

(b) In cannot however mean, that someone who negates both Pesachim, is obligated to bring two Chata'os - because Pesach, like Milah, is a Mitzvas Asei, and, as such, it is not subject to Chatas (since the Torah writes in Vayikra "Asher *Lo* Se'asenah" - but not for an Asei.)

(c) Rebbi Chananyah ben Akavya says that even for transgressing the Pesach Rishon, one is not Chayav Kares, unless he failed to bring the Pesach Sheini as well.

(a) According to Rebbi, Pesach Sheini is an independent Yom-Tov - consequently, a non-Jew who converted between Pesach Rishon and Pesach Sheini, will be Chayav to bring Pesach Sheini. Whereas according to Rebbi Nasan, Pesach Sheini is only a supplement to Pesach Rishon; consequently, that convert, who was not obligated to bring the Pesach Rishon, is not obligated to bring the Pesach Sheini either.

(b) Rebbi Chananyah ben Akavya holds that the Pesach Sheini comes to rectify not having brought the Pesach Rishon.

(a) Rebbi explains ...
1. ... "*Ki* Korban Hashem Lo Hikriv" - to mean "*or* he did not bring the Korban ... on Pesach Sheini".
2. ... the conclusion of the Pasuk - "Chet'o Yisa ha'Ish Hahu" - to mean that he is Chayav Kares. He learns that from "ve'Nasa Chet'o" written by the case of 'Megadef es Hashem', which he takes to mean someone who curses Hashem (who we already know, receives Kares).
(b) According to Rebbi Nasan ...
1. ... "Ki Korban Hashem Lo Hikriv be'Mo'ado" - means 'because he did not bring the Pesach *Rishon*.
2. ... the Gezeirah Shavah "*Chet'o* Yisa" "ve'Nasa Chet'o" - does not come to learn the Chiyuv Kares by *Pesach* from the *Megadef*, but the *Megadef* from *Pesach*, since, according to him, Megadef does not mean to curse Hashem, but to sing to Avodah-Zarah, whose punishment we would not know if not for this Gezeirah Shavah.
(c) Rebbi Chananyah ben Akavyah translates "Ki" as 'if'. He explains the Pasuk: "ve'Chadal La'asos ha'Pesach (Rishon) ve'Nichresah, Ki (if) Korban Hashem Lo Hikriv be'Mo'ado (on Pesach Sheini)".

(d) He explains "Chet'o Yisa ha'Ish Hahu" - to sentence the Megadef to Kares (like Rebbi Nasan).



6) Someone who was ...

1. ... *Meizid* by the Rishon, and *Shogeg* by the Sheini - will be Chayav according to Rebbi and Rebbi Nasan, and Patur according to Rebbi Chananyah ben Akavya.
2. ... *Shogeg* by the Rishon and *Meizid* by the Sheini - will be Chayav according to Rebbi, and Patur according to Rebbi Nasan and Chananyah ben Akavya.
(a) Modi'in is fifteen Mil (approximately fifteen kilometers) from Yerushalayim).

(b) Rebbi Eliezer holds that Derech Rechokah incorporates anyone who is outside the threshold of the Azarah during the entire period of the Shechitah.

(c) Rebbi Yossi proves Rebbi Eliezer right from the dot on the Hey of Rechokah - which indicates that one does not need to be really far away, like Rebbi Akiva learns.

(a) The blood of the Korban Pesach (or of any other Korban, for that matter) may be sprinkled on the Mizbei'ach up to sunset, after which it becomes Nosar.

(b) A person walks ten Parsah (forty Mil) from dawn-break until sunset. Detract five Milin from dawn-break until sunrise (according to the Gemara's current contention), and five Milin from sunset until nightfall, leaving thirty Mil from sunrise until sunset - fifteen from sunrise until mid-day, and fifteen Mil from mid-day until sunset (the distance that renders a person a Derech Rechokah, according to Rebbi Akiva).

(c) The Gemara proves from the Pasuk in Vayeira "ha'Shemesh Yatz'a Al ha'Aretz, ve'Lot Ba Tzo'arah" that from dawn-break until sunrise lasts five Milin (ninety minutes walking distance) - because that is the distance from Sedom to Tzo'ar (according to Rebbi Chanina's testimony), and the period of time that the Torah mentions there, is from dawn-break until sunrise.

(a) According to Rav Yehudah, Derech Rechokah refers to anyone who is unable to arrive in Yerushalayim before the termination of the time of *eating* the Pesach (i.e. by the morning according to Rebbi Akiva, or by mid-night according to Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah).

(b) Although Ula exempts a Derech Rechokah who is unable to get to the Azarah by the end of the period of Shechitah, that is because the Torah connected them accordingly, when it exempted a Derech Rechokah from bringing the Korban Pesach; but Tum'ah is different: there, the Torah exempted someone who is Tamei from bringing the Pesach, not because of the preparation involved, but because a Tamei person cannot *eat it*. Consequently, as long as he will be able to arrive (i.e. in a state of Taharah) in time to eat the Pesach, his Korban is valid - even though he was unable to enter the Azarah during the time of Shechitah.

(c) Although Rav Yehudah permits a Derech Rechokah to eat the Korban Pesach, even though he is only able to arrive in time for the eating of the Pesach, Tum'ah is different, because the Torah specifically rejects him, when it writes "Ish Ish Ki Yihye Tamei la'Nefesh ... ve'Asah Pesach la'Hashem ... ba'Chodesh ha'Sheini".

(d) Who says that the Pasuk "Ish Ish Ki Yihye Tamei la'Nefesh" does not incorporate someone whose seventh day fell on Erev Pesach? Yet the Torah requires him to bring the Pesach Sheini (like the opinion of Rav above 90b.). This is Rav Yehudah's proof for 'Ein Shochtin ve'Zorkin Al Tamei Sheretz'.

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