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Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Pesachim 91

PESACHIM 91 - dedicated by Uri Wolfson in honor of his Chavrusa, Rav Mordechai Rabin of Har Nof.



1. Min ha'Torah, a person is an Onan on the day that one of his seven relatives dies (or is buried), but not the following night - even if the deceased has not been buried yet.
2. 'Mefake'ach es ha'Gal' means someone who is digging up a pile of rubble that fell on a person, and it is not known whether he is alive or dead.
(b) Both of the above may eat the Korban Pesach if a Sheli'ach Shechted it on their behalf.

(c) The Sheli'ach may not however, Shecht a Pesach *solely* for either of the above, or for an old or sick person who are currently able to eat a k'Zayis of roasted meat - because we are afraid that the Onan in his grief, will touch his deceased relation, the person buried underneath the pile of rubble will turn out to be dead, and the old or sick person will take a turn for the worse, and be unable to eat it.

(d) The only case of those mentioned above who will be Chayav to bring a Pesach Sheini is the Mefake'ach es ha'Gal - because, should the person buried underneath turn out to be dead, the digger will be Tamei retroactively.

(a) We learn from the Pasuk "She'eiris Yisrael Lo Ya'asu Avlah ve'Lo Yedabru Chazav" that Jews keep their word. Consequently, the prohibition to Shecht solely for someone whom they promised to set free from jail, because the promise may not be fulfilled, is confined to a non-Jewish jail, but if Jewish jailers promise to set a man free, one may Shecht for him alone, because a Jew keeps his word.

(b) One imprisons a Jew, either to force him to divorce a wife that is forbidden to him, or to make him pay a debt that has fallen due, or if he struck someone a blow from which he is likely to die (until he either recovers or dies).

(c) One may Shecht solely even for a Jew who is imprisoned by non-Jews - if he is imprisoned within the wall of Beis Pagi (where one is still permitted to eat Kodshim Kalim).

(d) If one Shechted the Pesach solely on behalf of someone who is clearing away a pile of rubble from a *long pit* in search of a body that is buried underneath - he is Patur from bringing the Shesach Sheini - because he may well not have leaned over it until after the Shechitah.

(a) Rebbi Yossi permits Shechting a Korban Pesach for a single owner.

(b) When Rebbi Yossi adds (in our Mishnah) that even if there are a hundred who cannot eat the Pesach, one may not Shecht for them - he is saying that the criterion is not how many people one is Shechting for, (because even if one Shechts for a hundred people who are *not* able to eat a k'Zayis, one is *not* Yotze), but on the eating - so one may even Shecht for *one* person, as long as he is able to eat it.

(a) Rebbi Shimon derives from the Pasuk "Lo Suchal Lizbo'ach *es ha'Pesach be'Achad* She'arecha" - that it was forbidden to Shecht the Korban Pesach at a time when the Bamos were forbidden (even in a case where there was no Kares for Shechting outside the Azarah i.e. before mid-day).

(b) "be'Achad She'arecha", according to him, means that it was only forbidden as long as Yisrael entered the Mishkan through one gate (i.e. when there *was* a Mishkan, or after the Beis Hamikdash was built, and the Bamos were forbidden), but not when there was no Mishkan and the Bamos were permitted.

(c) Rebbi Yehudah learns Rebbi Shimon's Derashah, as well as his own, from the same Pasuk ("be'Achad She'arecha") - presumably the one from the juxtaposition of "be'Achad" to 'es ha'Pesach", and the other from its juxtaposition to "She'arecha").

(d) Rebbi Yossi learns from "Ish Le'fi *Ochlo*" that one may even Shecht the Pesach for one person.

(a) We amend Rebbi Yehudah's statement in the Beraisa to read not 'Ishah ba'Rishon Shochtin Aleha Bifnei *Atzmah*", but Bifnei *Atzman*' - meaning that a group comprising only women is permitted.

(b) The Mishnah 'Ein Osin Chaburas Nashim, va'Avadim u'Ketanim' - precludes a group that comprises either women and slaves or children and slaves - due the possible immoral ramifications of such a condition.




(a) In the above Beraisa, Rebbi Yehudah said (with regard to women) u'va'Sheini, Osin Osah Tefeilah la'Acheirim' - because, in his opinion, women only bring the Pesach Sheini in a voluntary capacity. Consequently, a group bringing the Pesach Sheini cannot comprise only women.

(b) According to Rebbi Yossi, a woman is also obligated to bring the Pesach Sheini.

(c) Rebbi Shimon says that women only bring the Korban Pesach Rishon in a voluntary capacity; whereas the Sheini they do not bring at all.

(d) Rebbi Yehudah derives from the Pasuk ...

1. ..."Chet'o Yisa *ha'Ish Hahu*" - that a woman who did not bring the Pesach Sheini is not Chayav (i.e. she is not obligated to bring the Pesach Sheini).
2. ... "ke'Chol Chukas ha'Pesach Ya'asu Oso" - that at least, she can volunteer to bring it.
(a) Rebbi Yossi learn from ...
1. ... "be'Michsas *Nefashos*" - that women are Chayav to bring the Pesach Rishon.
2. ... "ve'Nichresah *ha'Nefesh Hahi* mi'Yisrael" - that they are also Chayav to bring Pesach Sheini.
(b) He learns from "Chet'o Yisa *ha'Ish Hahu*" - that a child who became Bar-Mitzvah after the Pesach Rishon, and then failed to bring the Sheini, is Patur from Kares (see Tosfos DH 'Ish").

(c) Rebbi Shimon learns from ...

1. ... the word "Ish" written by Pesach Rishon - "Ish" 've'Lo Ishah'.
2. ... "be'Michsas *Nefashos*" - that she may nevertheless bring it voluntarily.
3. ... "Chet'o Yisa ha'Ish Hahu" (written by Pesach Sheini) - to preclude women from the Pesach Sheini altogether.
(d) According to Rebbi Shimon, this Pasuk cannot be coming to exempt women from the *obligation* of bringing the Pesach Sheini - because, since they are not even obligated to bring the Pesach *Rishon*, how could they possibly be obligated to bring the Pesach "*Sheini*?
(a) We learn from the Pasuk "ve'Yikchu Lahem *Ish* Seh la'Veis Avos, Seh la'Bayis" - that a Katan cannot acquire something on behalf of others (even if someone hands it to them expressly for that purpose - Tosfos DH 'Ish Zocheh').

(b) Rebbi Shimon holds like Rebbi Yossi - with regard to 'Shochtin es ha'Pesach Al ha'Yachid' (otherwise he should rather have learned from "Lo Suchal Lizbo'ach es ha'Pesach be'Achad ..." that 'Ein Shochtin es ha'Pesach Al ha'Yachid', like Rebbi Yehudah, rather than his Derashah forbidding Shechting the Pesach on a Bamas Yachid).

(c) They both learn from "Ish Lefi *Ochlo*" - 'Shochtin es ha'Pesach Al ha'Yachid'.

(d) Rebbi Shimon learns from "*Ish* Le'fi Ochlo" - that women are Patur from Pesach Rishon.

(a) We invert the first two statements of Rebbi Elazar's statement ('Ishah ba'Rishon Chovah, u'va'Sheini Reshus, ve'Docheh Shabbos') - to read 'Ishah ba'Sheini Reshus u'va'Rishon Chovah, ve'Docheh Shabbos'.

(b) Rebbi Yochanan says that a group should not comprise only converts - because, for the most part, they are not learned, in which case, due to the excessive scrupulousness, they are likely to cause the Pesach to become Pasul.

(a) We know that women are also obligated to eat Matzah on the first night of Pesach - from the Pasuk in Re'ei "Lo Sochal Alav Chametz, Shiv'as Yamim Tochal Matzos", which teaches us that whoever is included in the La'v of not eating Chametz (i.e. even women, who are Chayav to observe *all* La'vin), is also included in the Mitzvah of eating Matzos.

(b) We now amend the statement of Rebbi Shimon - to read 'Rebbi Shimon Omer, *Pesach* ba'Anashim Chovah, u've'Nashim Reshus'.

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