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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Pesachim 79



(a) Rebbi Yehoshua holds that, with regard to other Kodshim, it makes no difference whether Nitma Basar ve'Cheilev Kayam or vice-versa, the Korban is Kasher, and one sprinkles the blood; whereas by the Pesach, it is only by Nitma ve'Cheilev u'Basar Kayam, that the blood is sprinkled, but not vice- versa.

(b) The Shalmei Nazir has the same Din as the Korban Pesach, though for a different reason (because the Torah requires the Basar of the Shelamim to be Tahor in order to perform certain Mitzvos with it).

(c) Rebbi Yehoshua adds (with regard to a Korban Pesach where the Basar became Tamei) 've'Im Zarak Hurtzah', from which we see that, like Rav, the eating of the Pesach is not essential to the validity of the Pesach.

(d) Rebbi Yehoshua agrees however, that 'Im Nitme'u *ha'Ba'lim* be'Meis, Lo Yizrok, *ve'Im Zarak, Lo Hurtzah'* - because he agrees that the person must be fit to eat the Pesach (and the same applies to a Nazir, who must begin counting his days again, once *he* becomes Tamei).

(a) The author of our Mishnah, which permits the blood of Kodshim to be sprinkled even if no more one k'Zayis of Basar or of Chelev remains - is Rebbi Yehoshua.

(b) Half a k'Zayis of Basar and half a k'Zayis of Cheilev do not generally combine in this regard - since Achilas Adam and Achilas Mizbei'ach cannot combine.

(c) They *do* combine however, by a Korban Olah, since they are both Achilas Mizbei'ach.

(d) When the Beraisa says 'u've'Minchah, Af al Pi she'Kulah Kayemes, Lo Yizrok' - it is referring to the Minchas Nesachim i.e. a Minchah that is brought together with a regular animal. We may otherwise have thought that if the blood of the Korban with which it came became Tamei completely, it may nevertheless be sprinkled in account of the Minchah that remains, since it is as if part of the Minchah remained intact.

(a) We learn from the Pasuk ...
1. ... "ve'Hiktir *ha'Chelev* le'Rei'ach Nicho'ach la'Hashem" - 'Cheilev, Af al Pi she'Ein Basar'.
2. ... "ve'Hiktir ha'Chelev *le'Rei'ach Nicho'ach* la'Hashem" - that even if just the lobe of the liver or the two kidneys remain intact, one also sprinkles the blood.
(b) We know from the Beraisa that the lobe of the liver and the two kidneys have the same Din as the Chelev in this regard - because the Tana writes 'u've'Minchah Af al Pi she'Kulah Kayemes, Lo Yizrok', implying that if some of the actual *animal* remains (even if it is only he lobe of the liver or the two kidneys), one may go ahead and sprinkle the blood.

(c) Had the Torah written "le'Rei'ach Nicho'ach", and not "ha'Cheilev" - we would have thought that one may sprinkle the blood on anything that goes on the Mizbei'ach as a Rei'ach Nicho'ach, even the Minchah. Therefore the Torah added "ha'Cheilev", to confine the sprinkling of the blood to when some of the *Korban* remains, but not just the *Minchah*.

(a) The Pesach is brought be'Tuma'h even though the majority of the community are Tahor - when the *Kohanim* are Tamei.

(b) When the majority of the community (or the Kohanim) are Tamei - the remainder of the community may also bring the Pesach be'Tum'ah, in order not to divide the Pesach (which symbolizes the unity of K'lal Yisrael) into two separate sections.

(c) The Pesach is brought be'Tum'ah even if the entire community (including the Kohanim) are Tahor - when the K'lei Shares are Tamei.

(a) In the previous case, it is only if the knives (the K'lei Shares) became Tamei through a *Tamei Mes* that the Teme'im are also permitted to bring the Pesach, since that would render all who touched them Tamei (because of the principle 'Cherev, Harei Hu ke'Chalal').

(b) But if they became Tamei through a *Sheretz*, it is better *only* that the Tehorim bring the Pesach, and not the Teme'ei Mes, since Tum'as Sheretz does not carry with it a Chiyuv Kares (only a La'v), like Tum'as Mes does.

(c) Were Rav Chisda and Rav Yitzchak to hold Tum'ah Hutrah be'Tzibur, then, once a Pesach becomes 'Ba be'Tum'ah', everyone may participate without any restrictions. Consequently, seeing as they do everything possible to minimize the Tum'ah, they must hold 'Tum'ah Dechuyah be'Tzibur'.

(d) Rava learns from the Pasuk "ve'ha'Basar Asher Yiga be'Chol Tamei, Lo Ye'achel, ba'Eish Yisaref. ve'ha'Basar, Kol Tahor Yochal Basar" - whenever "ve'ha'Basar, Asher Yiga be'Chol Tamei" does *not* apply, "Kol Tahor Yochal Basar" *does*, and wherever the former *does* apply, the latter does *not*. Consequently, when the K'lei Shares (and subsequently, the Basar) are Tamei, there is no prohibition on Teme'im to bring the Pesach.

(a) 'Mechtzah Al Mechtzah ke'Rov means in practical terms - that both the Tehorim and the Teme'im must bring the Pesach independently.

(b) The Tehorim bring the Pesach independently - because 'Mechtzah ke'Rov', and Rov Tehorim do not bring a Pesach be'Tum'ah. And the Teme'im do not bring the Pesach Sheni - because Mechtzah ke'Rov, and Rov Teme'im bring Pesach Rishon, and not Pesach Sheni.

(c) Rav Kahana holds 'Mechtzah Al Mechtzah Einah ke'Rov'. The Tehorim bring the Pesach be'Taharah; the Teme'im either bring the Pesach Sheni, or do not bring it at all.




(a) Our Mishnah states that if the *majority* of the community is Tamei, they bring the Pesach be'Tum'ah, even the Tehorim - whereas if only *half* are Tamei, they do not all bring it be'Tum'ah, but the Teme'im be'Tum'ah, and the Tehorim, be'Taharah (just like Rav holds).

(b) The Gemara proves this answer from the Seifa, which states 'Nitma *Miy'ut* ha'Kahal, Tehorin Osin es ha'Rishon, u'*Temei'in Osin es ha'Sheini'* - implying that by Mechtzah Al Mechtzah, they both bring, the one *be'Tum'ah*, the other, be'Taharah.

(c) According to the first Lashon of Rav Kahana (which appears to give Mechtzah al Mechtzah the same Din as Miy'ut Teme'im), the Tana mentions specifically 'Miy'ut Teme'im' (not to imply that Mechtzah Al Mechtzah is any different, but) since the Reisha speaks about 'Nitma Rubo', it is natural to balance this in the Seifa with 'Nitma Miy'uto'.

(a) Rav and the second Lashon of Rav Kahana establish the Beraisa 'Tehorin Osin es ha'Rishon, u'Teme'in es ha'Sheini', by 'Mechtzah Teme'in u'Mechtzah Tehorin, ve'Nashim Mashlimos la'Teme'in' - and this Tana holds Nashim ba'Rishon, Reshus. Consequently, if one were to deduct the women from the majority of Teme'im, they would be in the minority, and a minority of Teme'im bring the Pesach Sheni.

(b) The Beraisa that conforms with the second Lashon of Rav Kahana states 'Tehorin Osin es ha'Rishon, u'Teme'in Ein Osin Lo es ha'Rishon ve'Lo es ha'Sheini'. Rav establishes the Beraisa by 'Mechtzah Teme'in u'Mechtzah Tehorin, ve'Nashim Odfos al ha'Tehor'in' (i.e. to make them the majority) - and this Tana holds 'Nashim ba'Rishon Chov' (as a result of which the Teme'im cannot bring the Rishon, since the minority of Teme'im do not bring the Pesach Rishon); 'u'va'Sheni Reshus' (which means that the Teme'im are a majority on Pesach Sheni, and the majority Teme'im do not bring Pesach Sheni).

(c) Rav Kahana in the first Lashon establishes the Beraisa by 'Mechtzah Al Mechtzah, ve'Nashim Mashlimos la'Tehorim'; and this Tana holds 'Nashim ba'Rishon Chov' (thereby absolving the Teme'im from bringing the Pesach Rishon, since Mechtzah Al Mechtzah do not bring, according to him); 'u'va'Sheni Reshus' (making a Rov Teme'im, and Rov Teme'im do not bring Pesach Sheni).

(a) Rebbi Elazar ben Masya says that since by Mechtzah Al Mechtzah, the Tehorim bring the Pesach independently, a majority of only one is not sufficient to alter this (and at least a majority of two will be required before the Tehorim may bring the Pesach be'Tum'ah). He learns this from the Pasuk "*Lo Suchal Lizbo'ach es ha'Pasach be'Achad* She'arecha" - from the juxtaposition of "be'Achad" to the first half of the Pasuk (as if the Torah had written "Lo Suchal Lizbo'ach es ha'Pasach be'Echad" - meaning that one cannot Shecht the Pesach in a way that one person causes any change).

(b) Rebbi Shimon says that one tribe is called a Kahal, and that therefore, if one tribe is Tamei, they may bring the Pesach on Pesach Rishon.

(c) Rebbi Yehudah goes even further, and says that, if one tribe is Tamei, it is as if half the Tzibur were Tamei, and all the tribes bring the Pesach be'Tum'ah.

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