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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Pesachim 71



(a) "Vehayisa Ach Samei'ach" - comes to include the night of Shemini Atzeres in the Mitzvah of Simchah.

(b) "Ach" comes to exclude the first night from the Mitzvah of Simchah?

(c) Why should the first night be any worse than the last one, unless it is to teach us that one requires Shechitah at the time of Simchah (which is not possible on the first night of Yom-Tov) - a proof for Ula Amar Rebbi Elazar?

(d) The reason to differentiate between the first night of Yom-Tov and the last one may also be because the last night follows the previous days on which Simchah applied, whereas the first night does *not*.

(a) The Mitzvah of Simchah on Yom-Tov comprises eating the meat of Shelamim.

(b) According to Rashi, the day of Shemini Atzeres is not included in the Mitzvah of Simchah - see Tosfos DH 'Lerabos'.

(c) Ula quoting Rebbi Elazar establishes the Beraisa which permits the Chagigas Arba'ah-Asar to be used as Shalmei Simchah - when the Pesach was not brought on the fourteenth (e.g. if it got lost and was found on the fifteenth), only on the fifteenth, in which case, it was indeed Shechted at the time of Simchah.

(d) In fact, this is the only feasible way of understanding the Beraisa - since, as we explained earlier, the author of this Beraisa is Ben Teima, and according to Ben Teima, had the Chagigah been Shechted on the fourteenth, it would become Pasul be'Linah on the morning of the fifteenth.

(a) The Gemara rejects the answer that one can fulfill the Mitzvah of Simchah with the goats of the Se'eirei Chatas - firstly, because the Se'irei Chatas could only be eaten raw (since they could not be roasted on Shabbos), and one cannot fulfill the Mitzvah of Simchah with raw meat; secondly, seeing as the Se'irei Chatas could only be eaten by Kohanim; how would the Yisraelim fulfill the Mitzvah?

(b) The Mishnah 'ha'Hallel *ve'ha'Simchah, Shemonah*' applies even when the first day of Yom-Tov falls on Shabbos - by wearing Yom-Tov clothes and drinking old wine.

(a) Ravin quotes Rebbi Elazar as saying - that one *is* Yotze the Mitzvah of Simchah with Shelamim that were Shechted on Erev Yom-Tov, because it is not necessary to Shecht at the time of Simchah.

(b) Ravin agrees with Ula that a Chagigas Arba'ah-Asar not brought with the Pesach cannot be used for the Chagigas Chamishah-Asar, because whatever comes as a fresh Chovah, can only be brought from Chulin.

(a) The Pasuk "ve'Lo Yolin Chelev Chagi Ad Boker" refers to the Chagigah of the fifteenth.

(b) Rav Kahana learns from the juxtaposition of this Pasuk to the word "Reishis" - that if the Chalavim of the Chagigah are left over until the next morning (even though the meat may still be eaten for another day), they become Nosar.

(c) There is no problem with the fact that, were it not for "Reishis", the Chalavim would be permitted until the second morning, whereas the meat became Asur already the night before - because there is no reason why the Chagigas Chamishah-Asar should be any worse than the Korban Pesach, where the meat becomes Asur at mid-night (according to Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah), whereas the Chalavim become Nosar only in the morning.

(d) Rav Yosef queries Rav Kahana's Derashah from "Reishis" like this: The Beraisa discussing the meat of the Chagigas Arba'ah-Asar, understands Boker Stam to mean the *first* morning (the fifteenth), and not the sixteenth; so why does Rav Kahana require "Reishis" to teach us that "Boker" by the Chalavim (which are more strict than the meat) refers to the *first* morning (the sixteenth), and not the second.




(a) The Pasuk "Lo Yalin Min ha'Basar Asher Tizbach ba'Erev ba'Yom ha'Rishon la'Boker" must be referring to the Chagigas Arba'ah-Asar - because of the word "ba'Erev" implying together with the Pasach which is brought in the evening (it cannot be referring to the Chagigah of the fifteenth, which can be brought *all day*, and not just in the evening).

(b) The Tana initially learns the Pasuk "ba'Yom ha'Rishon" - to refer to the *first* morning - the fifteenth, and " la'Boker" - to the *second*.

(c) When the Beraisa continues 'O Eino Ela Boker Rishon' - it is suggesting that "Lo Yalin Min ha'Basar Asher Tizbach ba'Erev" refers to the Chagigah of the fourteenth, and "ba'Yom ha'Rishon la'Boker" to the Chagigah of the fifteenth, both of which may be eaten for only *one day*.

(d) The Beraisa refutes this suggestion - because of the Pasuk "Im Neder O Nedavah, which comes to include the Chagigah in the Din of *two* days; so how can all Chagigos only be valid for *one* day?

(a) We finally establish ...
1. ... the Pasuk "Im Neder O Nedavah" (which permits eating a Neder or a Nedavah for two days) - by the Chagigah of the *fifteenth*.
2. ... "Lo Yalin ... ba'Erev ba'Yom ha'Rishon la'Boker" - by the Chagigah of the *fourteenth*.
(b) And we finally establish the explanation with which we began (in 6a and 6b) - namely that "ba'Yom ha'Rishon" refers to the fifteenth, and "la'Boker", to the morning of the sixteenth.

(c) So we see from this Beraisa that, if not for "ba'Yom ha'Rishon", "Boker" alone would mean the *first* morning. That being the case, why does Rav Kahana require the extra word "Reishis* to teach us the same thing?

(a) One is Chayav Chatas for Shechting a Pesach as a Shelamim on Shabbos (since a Pesach that is brought she'Lo Lishemah is not Kasher).

(b) According to Rebbi Yehoshua, someone who Shechts other Korbanos in the name of a Pesach is Chayav if they are *not* fit to be brought as a Pesach, but Patur, if they *are*.

(c) The reason that he is Patur is because, in Rebbi Yehoshua's opinion, someone who errs in the performance of a Mitzvah, and actually performs a Mitzvah, is Patur from a Chatas. And here, he performed a Mitzvah, since all Korbanos that were Shechted she'Lo Lishemah are Kasher - even if they were Shechted as a Pesach (according to him).

(a) Rebbi Eliezer argues that if one is Chayav for bringing the Pesach (which *may* be brought on Shabbos, Lishemah) as another Korban (as we explained in 8a), then how much more so should one be Chayav for bringing another Korban (which may *not*), as a Pesach!

(b) One is Chayav for bringing the Pesach (which *may* be brought on Shabbos Lishemah) as another Korban - because one changed for a Korban that is *forbidden*, whereas when one brings another Korban as a Pesach, he has changed for a Korban that is *permitted*, and he will therefore be Patur.

(c) According to Rebbi Yehoshua, one is Chayav for Shechting other Korbanos in the name of the Korban Tzibur (which has already been brought) since only *one* Tamid is brought each session, and he should have known that, once it has been brought, there is nothing more to do. Consequently, he a regular Shogeg, not an O'nes. Not so someone who Shechts another Korban in the name of a Pesach, of which there are thousands waiting to be Shechted, making him an O'nes, rather than a Shogeg.

(d) According to Rebbi Meir, even someone who Shechts another Korban in the name of Eimurei Tzibur that has already been brought, is also Patur.

(a) Someone who Shechts a Pesach on Shabbos ...
1. ... for anyone who cannot eat it - is Chayav.
2. ... for some people who can and for some who cannot - is Patur.
3. ... if he Shechts it and it turns out to be a blemished animal - is Chayav (because he should have inspected it first).
4. ... if he Shechts it and it turns out to be Tereifah (in a place which is invisible) - he is Patur (because how was he to have known - making him an O'nes).
(b) He is Patur if, after the Shechitah, he discovered that the owner had withdrawn, died or become Tamei - for the same reason as in the previous casae.
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