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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Pesachim 61

PESACHIM 61 - has been dedicated by Mr. Avi Berger of Queens, N.Y. in memory of his parents, Pinchas ben Reb Avraham Yitzchak, and Leah bas Michal Mordechai



(a) Shinuy Ba'lim is not applicable by 'the four Avodos' (only by Zerikah) - because they are brought mainly as a Kaparah, and the Kaparah depends on the Zerikah. It is only the Pesach that is brought mainly to be eaten.

(b) Shinuy Ba'lim does not apply ...

1. ... after the owner's death - because the Korban has no owner, so how can Shinuy Ba'lim apply to it?
2. ... by a Korban Tzibur - because the Tzibur incorporates the whole of Klal Yisrael, so which other Ba'lim can one possibly have in mind?
(c) Shinuy Ba'lim does not apply to a Korban Tzibur if the blood is sprinkled in the name of gentiles - because Shinuy Ba'lim is confined to people who are Chayav to bring this Kaparah in the same way as he is (since we learn this from "Lechaper Alav" - 'Alav ve'Lo Al Chavero').
(a) The Chumrah of Pesulo be'Gufo pertaining to Shinuy Kodesh is not really a Chumrah at all - because it is not an intrinsic Pesul, only a Machshavah.

(b) According to Rav Pinchas Brei de'Rav Ami, Shinuy Ba'lim applies even after death - means that, if the Korban was Shechted in the name of someone else, the heirs are obligated to bring another animal on their deceased father's behalf.

(c) Rava concludes that if a Pesach was Shechted during the year with Shinuy Ba'lim - it is like a Pesach that was Shechted without an owner, and is Pasul.

(a) If a Korban is Shechted le'Ochlav ve'she'Lo le'Ochlav, li'Menuyav ve'she'Lo li'Menuyav, le'Mulim ve'la'Areilim or la'Temei'im ve'la'Tehorim - it is Kasher?

(b) The reason for this is because Miktzas Ochlin does not invalidate the Pesach. The reason for that, we shall see later.

(a) A Pesach that is Shechted before midday is not Kasher - because the Torah writes in Bo "Bein ha'Arbayim".

(b) If the Pesach was Shechted before the Tamid, one must stir the blood until that of the Tamid has been sprinkled.

(c) If the blood of the Pesach was sprinkled before that of the Tamid - it is nevertheless Kasher.

(a) We learn from the Pasuk "be'Michsas" - that the Pesach may only be Shechted for its designees.

(b) If a Pesach was Shechted exclusively for a group of people who were all not designated to eat it, we know that it is Pasul - because the Torah writes "be'Michsas" and "Tochosu", and whenever the Torah repeats something in the realm of Korbanos, it is to render it Pasul even Bedi'eved.

(c) When Rebbi says 'Lashon Sursi Hu, ke'Adam she'Omer la'Chaveiro, "Kus Li T'le Zeh" ' - he means to say that 'Kus' is a Sursian word meaning 'Shecht', and we learn from this Pasuk that when one Shechts the Korban Pesach, one should do so having in mind the designees.

(d) we learn that she'Lo le'Ochlav invalidates, too - from the Pasuk "Ish le'Fi Ochlo Tachosu Al ha'Seh", which compares the Ochlin to the Menuyin; so just as she'Lo li'Menuyin is Pasul, so is she'Lo le'Ochlin.




(a) Rabah's reason for validating a Pesach that was Shechted on behalf of Mulim, even when the Shochet had in mind that the Zerikah should atone for Arelim - is because of the principle 'Ein Machsheves Arelim bi'Zerikah (even though he had the thought during the Shechitah).

(b) Miktzas Tum'ah does *not* invalidate the Korban, whereas Miktzas Z'man *does*.

(c) We might learn Miktzas Orlah from ...

1. ... Miktzas Tum'ah rather than from Miktzas Z'man - because neither of them apply to other Kodshim other than the Pesach, since, unlike Z'man, which applies to all Kodshim, 'Areil ve'Tamei Meshalchin Korbenoseihen'.
2. ... Miktzas Z'man rather than from Miktzas Tum'ah - because unlike Tum'ah, which has a Heter be'Tzibur, Orlah and Z'man have no Heter under any circumstances.
(a) Rabah learns from the Pasuk ...
1. ... "*ve'Chol* Arel Lo Yochal Bo" - that 'Kulah Orlah Paslah, Miktzas Orlah Lo Paslah'.
2. ... "*Zos* Chukas ha'Pesach ... Kol Arel Lo Yochal Bo" - that 'bi'Shechitah Hu de'Kulah Orlah Miha Paslah, Aval Zerikah Afilu Kulah Orlah Nami Lo Paslah'.
(b) Zerikah is more lenient in this regard - because 'Ein Machsheves Ochlin bi'Zerikah'.

(c) Rav Chisda interprets ...

1. ... "*ve'Chol* Arel Lo Yochal Bo" - like Rabah (i.e. 'Kulah Orlah Paslah, Miktzas Orlah Lo Paslah').
2. ... "*Zos* Chukas ha'Pesach ... Kol Arel Lo Yochal Bo" - that 'Shechitah Hu de'Miktzasah Lo Paslah, Aval Zerikah, Afilu Miktzasah Paslah'.
(d) According to Rav Chisda, Zerikah is more stringent because Pigul is fixed by the Zerikah (i.e. Pigul applies [in retrospect] only if the four Avodos - up to and including the Zerikah were completed be'Kashrus).
8) Rav Ashi Darshens ...
1. ... "ve'Kol Arel" - to mean 'Kol Dehu Orlah' - even if only one member of the group is an Arel the Pesach is invalid.
2. ... "Zos" - to mean that only if all the members are Arelim does it become Pasul.
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