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Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Pesachim 55



(a) Raban Shimon ben Gamliel encourages everyone to desist from work on Tish'ah be'Av (like Talmidei-Chachamim); the Chachamim forbid it - because they *are worried* that a person may become vain if he behaves like a Talmid-Chacham, when really he is not; Raban Shimon ban Gamliel is *not*.

(b) With regard to a Chasan reciting the Shema on the first night after his marriage - the Chachamim permit him it, and Raban Shimon ben Gamliel forbids it (seemingly reversing their opinions here),

(c) According to Rav Shisha Brei de'Rav Idi, the Rabbanan are more stringent by Tish'ah be'Av than they are by a Chasan - because in our case, all the town's residents are doing work and he is not, whereas in the case of the Chasan, he is saying the Shema together with everybody else (and it is being aloof from the community that is conducive to vanity, not acting in concert with them).

(d) Raban Shimon ben Gamliel, on the other hand, is more lenient by Tish'ah be'Av than by a Chasan - because whereas a Chasan on the night of his wedding stands out as being different than other Chasanim (and is therefore subject to Mar'is ha'Ayin), and people will talk about him; a person who desists from work on Tish'ah be'Av, on the other hand, does not stand out, since there are many people who do not work for a variety of reasons (so there is no Mar'is ha'Ayin involved). Note: The Chachamim and Raban Shimon ben Gamliel appear to have different reasons for the prohibition of differing from the community: the Chachamim are worried about a person becoming proud, whereas Raban Shimon ben Gamliel is concerned about Mar'is ha'Ayin.

(a) The Chachamim in the Mishnah here maintain that working on Erev Pesach morning is not a question of Minhag, but a Machlokes between the B'nei Yehudah, who did, and the B'nei Galil, who did not.

(b) Regarding the eve of the fourteenth - Beis Shamai maintained that whoever forbade the fourteenth morning, forbade also the night before; whereas according to Beis Hillel, the night before is permitted according to everyone.

(c) The author of ...

  1. ... the first Mishnah - is Rebbi Meir.
  2. ... the second Mishnah - Rebbi Yehudah.
(a) Rebbi Yehudah says that if someone who is weeding on the thirteenth, pulls out some of the grain, he should re-sow it in a damp place, and not in a dry one - in order that the seeds should quickly take root before the Omer; otherwise, it will mean waiting until the following Omer before they will be permitted to be eaten.

(b) From the fact that Rebbi Yehudah says 'on the thirteenth' - we can deduce that it would be forbidden to do so on the fourteenth. But did we not just say that, according to Rebbi Yehudah, work is on principle, permitted on the fourteenth?

(c) One needs to sow three days before the Omer for the crops to be permitted by that Omer.

(d) We cannot answer that Rebbi Yehudah said the thirteenth, because otherwise, one will not have three full days till the Omer - because one does not require three *full* days, and part of the first (the fourteenth), the entire second day (the fifteenth) and part of the third day (the sixteenth - until the Omer is brought), will suffice; ('Miktzas ha'Yom ke'Kulo').

(a) 'be'Galil Shanu' - means that when Rebbi Yehudah permits sowing on the thirteenth, and forbids it on the fourteenth, is referring to the Galil, who forbid working on the fourteenth; nor does he contend with the night of the fourteenth, not because it is forbidden to work then, but because people do not tend to do work such as weeding at night-time.

(b) According to Ravina - Rebbi Yehudah insists that the re-sowing is done on the thirteenth, not because it is forbidden to work on the fourteenth, but because the required three-day period may include *one* part of a day, it cannot include *two* ('Chad Miktzas ha'Yom ke'Kulo' Amrinan, Trei ... Lo Amrinan').

(a) According to Rebbi Meir, it is forbidden to begin any Melachah on the fourteenth - irrespective of whether he can finish it before Yom-Tov or not.

(b) The Chachamim permit a tailor, a barber and a laundry-man - to work on the fourteenth under any circumstances.

(c) Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Yehudah adds a cobbler to the list.

(a) Either Rebbi Meir restricts even the completion of a job on the fourteenth to one that is Tzorech ha'Mo'ed, but beginning one is forbidden even then; or he permits completing a job even if is *not* le'Tzorech ha'Mo'ed, but if it *is*, then one is even permitted to begin it; or completing a job is permitted under all circumstances, whereas beginning one, is forbidden under all circumstances.

(b) The Gemara initially thought that when Rebbi Meir forbids beginning *even* making a little belt - he means even a little belt which is le'Tzorech ha'Mo'ed; from which we can infer that to complete the job is forbidden, provided it is le'Tzorech ha'Mo'ed - but not if it is *not*.

(c) We could also infer from the word 'even' - that one may not even *begin* such a small thing as a belt, which will be finished the same day (before Yom-Tov), only to *complete* it even if it was begun before the fourteenth (and then even if it is *not* le'Tzorech ha'Mo'ed).

(d) There is no proof from the second Beraisa (where Rebbi Meir permits le'Tzorech ha'Mo'ed provided he began before the fourteenth; otherwise 'Lo Yaschil Bah be'Arba'ah-Asar Afilu Tziltzul Katan' ... ) - that even the completion of a Melachah which is not le'Tzorech ha'Mo'ed on the fourteenth is prohibited, only that one may not begin a Melachah even if it is le'Tzorech ha'Mo'ed.




(a) The Chachamim permit tailors, barbers and laundry-men to work on the fourteenth under any circumstances: tailors - because everyone is permitted to sow in an inexpert manner on Chol ha'Mo'ed (and, seeing as Chol ha'Mo'ed is more stringent than the fourteenth of Nisan, whatever has the slightest Heter on it, is absolutely permitted on the fourteenth); and barbers and laundry-men - because someone who comes from overseas or who is released from prison, is permitted to have a haircut and to wash his clothes on Chol ha'Mo'ed.

(b) Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Yehudah adds cobblers to the list - because people who arrive in Yerushalayim for the Shalosh Regalim are permitted to repair their shoes on Chol ha'Mo'ed.

(c) The Rabbanan disagree with him - because the Olei Regalim are only permitted to *repair* their shoes, so how can Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Yehudah learn from there to permit cobblers to make *new* shoes on the fourteenth of Nisan.

(a) 'Shovchin' - refers to placing dove-cots for the doves to alight and settle; 'Tarnegolin' - to placing the chickens on the eggs to hatch.

(b) On the fourteenth, one may place chicken on the eggs to hatch them *Lechatchilah*; when the Tana adds the concession of returning a chicken that ran away *Bedi'eved*, he is referring to Chol ha'Mo-ed (when placing it Lechatchilah is forbidden).

(c) One may re-place a chicken that died - even on Chol ha'Mo-ed.

(d) It is permitted to remove the dung completely from in front of the animals in the stable on the fourteenth, but only to sweep it to the side on Chol ha'Mo'ed.

(a) Rav Huna requires that the chicken must have already sat on the eggs for at least three days - because then the egg is no longer fit to eat, and, in his opinion, re-placing the chicken on Chol ha'Mo'ed is only permitted if not doing so will result in a total loss; he also requires that it should still be within three days of its having run away - because after that, the egg will have become cold and there is no point in re-placing it, since it will no longer hatch.

(b) According to Rav Ami, the Mishnah speaks even if the chicken had not yet sat three days on the eggs - because, even though the egg will not be a total loss, it is nevertheless partially spoilt (since it is people who are not at all finicky who will eat it), and Chazal permitted returning the chicken on Chol ha'Mo'ed even to save from a small loss.

10) Rava, faced with a discrepancy in the Beraisa - explains that if the Chatzer becomes as dirty as a stable, then one is permitted to clear away the dung completely.


(a) Rav Papa explained that our Mishnah, which permits taking vessels to and from the repair man - even when they are *not* needed for Yom-Tov - is speaking on the fourteenth, whereas the Beraisa, which permits it only when they *are* - is speaking on Chol ha'Mo'ed.

(b) Rav Papa's distinction between when the owner trusts the repair man and when he doesn't is correct - it is substantiated in the Beraisa, which specifically permits him to fetch his article, should he not trust the repair-man.

(c) The Gemara nevertheless rejects Rav Papa's second answer - because how will we then explain taking the vessels *to* the repair-man, which the Tana of our Mishnah also permits?

(d) If the repair-man has nothing to eat for Yom-Tov, one may pay him on Chol ha'Mo'ed, but one is obligated to leave the repaired article by him; he may not take it home!

12) If the owner does not trust the repair-man, he may fetch his repaired article from his premises. He may not however, take it home, but is obligated to leave it in the nearest house. If however, he is afraid that it will get stolen from there, then he may discreetly take it home from the repair-shop.

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