ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous dafPesachim 55
(a) Raban Shimon ben Gamliel encourages everyone to desist from work on
Tish'ah be'Av (like Talmidei-Chachamim); the Chachamim forbid it - because
they *are worried* that a person may become vain if he behaves like a
Talmid-Chacham, when really he is not; Raban Shimon ban Gamliel is *not*.
(b) With regard to a Chasan reciting the Shema on the first night after his
marriage - the Chachamim permit him it, and Raban Shimon ben Gamliel forbids
it (seemingly reversing their opinions here),
(c) According to Rav Shisha Brei de'Rav Idi, the Rabbanan are more stringent
by Tish'ah be'Av than they are by a Chasan - because in our case, all the
town's residents are doing work and he is not, whereas in the case of the
Chasan, he is saying the Shema together with everybody else (and it is being
aloof from the community that is conducive to vanity, not acting in concert
(d) Raban Shimon ben Gamliel, on the other hand, is more lenient by Tish'ah
be'Av than by a Chasan - because whereas a Chasan on the night of his
wedding stands out as being different than other Chasanim (and is therefore
subject to Mar'is ha'Ayin), and people will talk about him; a person who
desists from work on Tish'ah be'Av, on the other hand, does not stand out,
since there are many people who do not work for a variety of reasons (so
there is no Mar'is ha'Ayin involved). Note: The Chachamim and Raban Shimon
ben Gamliel appear to have different reasons for the prohibition of
differing from the community: the Chachamim are worried about a person
becoming proud, whereas Raban Shimon ben Gamliel is concerned about Mar'is
(a) The Chachamim in the Mishnah here maintain that working on Erev Pesach
morning is not a question of Minhag, but a Machlokes between the B'nei
Yehudah, who did, and the B'nei Galil, who did not.
(b) Regarding the eve of the fourteenth - Beis Shamai maintained that
whoever forbade the fourteenth morning, forbade also the night before;
whereas according to Beis Hillel, the night before is permitted according to
(c) The author of ...
- ... the first Mishnah - is Rebbi Meir.
- ... the second Mishnah - Rebbi Yehudah.
(a) Rebbi Yehudah says that if someone who is weeding on the thirteenth,
pulls out some of the grain, he should re-sow it in a damp place, and not in
a dry one - in order that the seeds should quickly take root before the
Omer; otherwise, it will mean waiting until the following Omer before they
will be permitted to be eaten.
(b) From the fact that Rebbi Yehudah says 'on the thirteenth' - we can
deduce that it would be forbidden to do so on the fourteenth. But did we not
just say that, according to Rebbi Yehudah, work is on principle, permitted
on the fourteenth?
(c) One needs to sow three days before the Omer for the crops to be
permitted by that Omer.
(d) We cannot answer that Rebbi Yehudah said the thirteenth, because
otherwise, one will not have three full days till the Omer - because one
does not require three *full* days, and part of the first (the fourteenth),
the entire second day (the fifteenth) and part of the third day (the
sixteenth - until the Omer is brought), will suffice; ('Miktzas ha'Yom
(a) 'be'Galil Shanu' - means that when Rebbi Yehudah permits sowing on the
thirteenth, and forbids it on the fourteenth, is referring to the Galil, who
forbid working on the fourteenth; nor does he contend with the night of the
fourteenth, not because it is forbidden to work then, but because people do
not tend to do work such as weeding at night-time.
(b) According to Ravina - Rebbi Yehudah insists that the re-sowing is done
on the thirteenth, not because it is forbidden to work on the fourteenth,
but because the required three-day period may include *one* part of a day,
it cannot include *two* ('Chad Miktzas ha'Yom ke'Kulo' Amrinan, Trei ... Lo
(a) According to Rebbi Meir, it is forbidden to begin any Melachah on the
fourteenth - irrespective of whether he can finish it before Yom-Tov or not.
(b) The Chachamim permit a tailor, a barber and a laundry-man - to work on
the fourteenth under any circumstances.
(c) Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Yehudah adds a cobbler to the list.
(a) Either Rebbi Meir restricts even the completion of a job on the
fourteenth to one that is Tzorech ha'Mo'ed, but beginning one is forbidden
even then; or he permits completing a job even if is *not* le'Tzorech
ha'Mo'ed, but if it *is*, then one is even permitted to begin it; or
completing a job is permitted under all circumstances, whereas beginning
one, is forbidden under all circumstances.
(b) The Gemara initially thought that when Rebbi Meir forbids beginning
*even* making a little belt - he means even a little belt which is
le'Tzorech ha'Mo'ed; from which we can infer that to complete the job is
forbidden, provided it is le'Tzorech ha'Mo'ed - but not if it is *not*.
(c) We could also infer from the word 'even' - that one may not even *begin*
such a small thing as a belt, which will be finished the same day (before
Yom-Tov), only to *complete* it even if it was begun before the fourteenth
(and then even if it is *not* le'Tzorech ha'Mo'ed).
(d) There is no proof from the second Beraisa (where Rebbi Meir permits
le'Tzorech ha'Mo'ed provided he began before the fourteenth; otherwise 'Lo
Yaschil Bah be'Arba'ah-Asar Afilu Tziltzul Katan' ... ) - that even the
completion of a Melachah which is not le'Tzorech ha'Mo'ed on the fourteenth
is prohibited, only that one may not begin a Melachah even if it is
(a) The Chachamim permit tailors, barbers and laundry-men to work on the
fourteenth under any circumstances: tailors - because everyone is permitted
to sow in an inexpert manner on Chol ha'Mo'ed (and, seeing as Chol ha'Mo'ed
is more stringent than the fourteenth of Nisan, whatever has the slightest
Heter on it, is absolutely permitted on the fourteenth); and barbers and
laundry-men - because someone who comes from overseas or who is released
from prison, is permitted to have a haircut and to wash his clothes on Chol
(b) Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Yehudah adds cobblers to the list - because people
who arrive in Yerushalayim for the Shalosh Regalim are permitted to repair
their shoes on Chol ha'Mo'ed.
(c) The Rabbanan disagree with him - because the Olei Regalim are only
permitted to *repair* their shoes, so how can Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Yehudah
learn from there to permit cobblers to make *new* shoes on the fourteenth of
(a) 'Shovchin' - refers to placing dove-cots for the doves to alight and
settle; 'Tarnegolin' - to placing the chickens on the eggs to hatch.
(b) On the fourteenth, one may place chicken on the eggs to hatch them
*Lechatchilah*; when the Tana adds the concession of returning a chicken
that ran away *Bedi'eved*, he is referring to Chol ha'Mo-ed (when placing it
Lechatchilah is forbidden).
(c) One may re-place a chicken that died - even on Chol ha'Mo-ed.
(d) It is permitted to remove the dung completely from in front of the
animals in the stable on the fourteenth, but only to sweep it to the side
on Chol ha'Mo'ed.
(a) Rav Huna requires that the chicken must have already sat on the eggs for
at least three days - because then the egg is no longer fit to eat, and, in
his opinion, re-placing the chicken on Chol ha'Mo'ed is only permitted if
not doing so will result in a total loss; he also requires that it should
still be within three days of its having run away - because after that, the
egg will have become cold and there is no point in re-placing it, since it
will no longer hatch.
Rava, faced with a discrepancy in the Beraisa - explains that if the Chatzer
becomes as dirty as a stable, then one is permitted to clear away the dung
(b) According to Rav Ami, the Mishnah speaks even if the chicken had not yet
sat three days on the eggs - because, even though the egg will not be a
total loss, it is nevertheless partially spoilt (since it is people who are
not at all finicky who will eat it), and Chazal permitted returning the
chicken on Chol ha'Mo'ed even to save from a small loss.
(a) Rav Papa explained that our Mishnah, which permits taking vessels to and
from the repair man - even when they are *not* needed for Yom-Tov - is
speaking on the fourteenth, whereas the Beraisa, which permits it only when
they *are* - is speaking on Chol ha'Mo'ed.
If the owner does not trust the repair-man, he may fetch his repaired
article from his premises. He may not however, take it home, but is
obligated to leave it in the nearest house. If however, he is afraid that it
will get stolen from there, then he may discreetly take it home from the
(b) Rav Papa's distinction between when the owner trusts the repair man and
when he doesn't is correct - it is substantiated in the Beraisa, which
specifically permits him to fetch his article, should he not trust the
(c) The Gemara nevertheless rejects Rav Papa's second answer - because how
will we then explain taking the vessels *to* the repair-man, which the Tana
of our Mishnah also permits?
(d) If the repair-man has nothing to eat for Yom-Tov, one may pay him on
Chol ha'Mo'ed, but one is obligated to leave the repaired article by him; he
may not take it home!