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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Pesachim 50



(a) "Vehayah ba'Yom ha'Hu, Yihyeh Or Yekaros ve'Kipa'on" - refers either to the light of the sun, or to the the tractates of Nega'im and Ohalos, or to wealthy and prominent people.

(b) When Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi said that he saw an inverted world - he was referring to the World to Come: those who have been wealthy and prominent (in a purely material sense) in this world, will be insignificant there, whilst those who have been insignificant in this world, will be prominent there.

(c) He saw the Talmidei-Chachamim (who generally enjoyed tremendous respect in those days) *there* just as they were *here* - prominent and prestigious.

(a) 'Praiseworthy is the person who arrives at the Gates of Heaven with his studies in his *hands*' (meaning that he not only studied but also put what he learnt into *practice*).

(b) It is the martyrs (who died Al Kidush Hashem) who are supreme in Heaven.

(c) 'The Harugei Malchus' (the martyrs) implies the famous ten Tana'im - Rebbi Akiva and his colleagues. But surely, those Tzadikim hardly needed to die a martyr's death in order to be considered supreme in Heaven.

(d) The 'Harugei Lud' were two brothers who owned up to having killed the princess (even though they were innocent) in order to save the Jewish community, which had been accused of the murder and which had been threatened with annihilation (should the murderer fail to own up).

(a) According to Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi, Yerushalayim in time to come, will stretch as far as a horse can run in half a day.

(b) Rebbi Yochanan explains the Pasuk to mean that all the booty which Yisrael will collect in the half-day that a horse runs they will declare holy for Hashem (an apparent compromise between the explanations of Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi and Rebbi Elazar).

(c) According to the first two explanations ...

1. ... the continuation of the Pasuk "Vehayah ha'Siros be'Veis Hashem ke'Mizrakim Lifnei ha'Mizbei'ach" - is a different issue: it is telling us that Yisrael will become rich from all the booty, and will dedicate vast amounts to the Beis ha'Mikdash (there will be so much wealth, that even the 'Siros' (the pots) will be of silver, like the silver-'Mizrakim'.
2. According to them, the continuation of the Pasuk "ve'Lo Yihye *Kena'ani* Od be'Veis Hashem" - is merely an acronym 'Lo Yihye *Kahn Ani* be'Veis Hashem' - everyone will come to the Beis ha'Mikdash, and there will not be a poor person amongst you.
(a) Rebbi Yochanan explains this latter Pasuk to mean that Hekdesh will become so enriched, that there will be no more need of treasurers (Kena'ani means a merchant) to look for funds for Bedek ha'Bayis.

(b) We know that Kena'ani means a businessman from the Pasuk in Vayeshev "Vayar Sham Yehudah Bas Ish Kena'ani", which cannot be understood literally, since Yehudah would not have contravened the strict instructions that the Avos handed down to their children - not to marry a Kena'ani. Consequently, it must mean that Yehudah married the daughter of a local merchant.

(a) The Gemara interprets the Pasuk ...
1. ... "ba'Yom ha'Hu Yihye Hashem Echad" - to mean that, unlike in *this* world, where, on good news, we recite a Berachah 'ha'Tov ve'ha'Meitiv', and on bad news 'Baruch Dayan ha'Emes', in the World to Come, there will be only one Berachah to recite: namely, that of 'ha'Tov ve'ha'Meitiv', because there will not be any bad news (hence "*Hashem* Echad" - since 'Hashem' denotes Chesed).
2. ... "u'Shemo Echad" - to mean that, unlike in this world, where Hashem's Name is written one way (Havayah), but pronounced another (as Adnus), in the World to Come, it will be pronounced the same way as it is written (with the destruction of Amalek and the powers of evil, Hashem will reign supreme with His Midas ha'Chesed, and will no longer need to bring His Midas ha'Din to bear).
(b) When Rava was about to reveal the Name of Hashem (with the appropriate vowels) in his annual Derashah (because we do not know with which set of vowels the Name Havayah will be read) - that old man stopped him short; "Zeh Shemi *Le'olam", he pointed out ("This is My Name, to hide it")! It may not be revealed.

(c) "Zeh She'mi le'Olam, ve'Zeh Zichri le'Dor Dor" - means that Hashem's Name is not pronounced in the same way as it is written, as we explained earlier.

***** Hadran Alach, 'Elu Ovrin'! *****

***** Perek Makom she'Nahagu *****


(a) The Minhag not to do work on Erev Pesach - extends until midday. From then on, working is prohibited Al Pi Halachah, not Al Pi Minhag.

(b) The reason for this - is to ensure that one does not forget to destroy one's Chametz, Shecht the Korban Pesach and to bake one's Matzos for the Seder; all this because it is a Mitzvah to settle down to the Seder when the time arrives as soon as possible, without a moment's more delay than necessary.

(c) Someone who arrives in a town where the Minhag is to do work until midday from a town where the Minhag is *not* to, or vice-versa - is obligated to adopt the Chumros of the town where he is, as well as to retain those of his home town.

(d) A major reason for not deviating from the local Minhag - is because of Machlokes (not to cause strife).



7) A 'Makom she'Kalu' means when no more fruit in any of the fields of one of the three areas (which will be discussed shortly); and a 'Makom she'Lo Kalu' means that fruit remains even in even one of its fields of that area.


(a) Work is forbidden ...
1. ... on Erev Pesach - from midday.
2. ... on Erev Shabbos and every other Erev Yom-Tov - from Minchah Ketanah (i.e. two and a half hours before nightfall).
(b) Someone who works on Erev Shabbos and Erev Yom-Tov will not see a Si'man Berachah from his work, whereas someone who works on Erev Pesach is also placed in Cherem.

(c) Someone who works on Motza'ei Shabbos, Motza'ei Yom-Tov or Motza'ei Yom Kipur (without adding the necessary Tosefes) will not receive a Divine blessing - because he is showing disrespect towards these holy days by not extending them in accordance with the Halachah.

(d) The same applies to someone who works on a Ta'anis Tzibur (which the Beis-Din decreed because it failed to rain in the required time.

1. ... a Zariz ve'Nifsad' - is someone who works the entire week, including Friday (he loses the Mitzvah of desisting from work on Erev Shabbos).
2. ... a Shafal ve'Niskar' - is someone who out of laziness, does no work the whole week, including Friday (he will receive reward for desisting from work on Erev Shabbos).
(b) The women of Mechuza, according to the testimony of Rava (who was their Rav) were spoilt, and did not work the whole week. Nevertheless, they would receive their due reward for desisting from work on Erev Shabbos.

(c) Rava explains that the Pasuk "Ki Gadol *Ad* Shamayim Chasdecha" refers to the lesser reward due to a person who performs Mitzvos she'Lo Lishmah, whereas that of "Ki Gadol *me'Al* Shamayim Chasdecha" refers to the greater reward of someone who performs Mitzvos Lishmah.

(d) Rav Yehudah said 'Le'olam Ya'asok Adam be'Torah u'Mitzvos Af-Al-Pi she'Lo Lishmah, she'Mitoch she'Lo Lishmah, Ba Lishmah'.

1. ... 'Maskulta' - means a woman who would take her scales to the market,where, for a small fee, whe would rent them out to anyones who needed to weigh something.
2. ... 'Rechayim' - means that, in a similar fashion, rent out one's mill, which entailed a lot of work, for a small fee. Neither of them expect to see a Divine blessing in their work - because it is simply not a lucrative business (and one cannot rely on miracles).
(b) We learn from the Pasuk "Sadin Asesah va'Timkor" - that the above is confined to weighing with the scales, but that any kind of business (even buying and selling scales and mills) is praiseworthy by a woman no less than by a man.

(c) Selling jars and (bundles of) canes (to build fences) is not a lucrative business - because, due to the bulks involved, they are subject to Ayin ha'Ra.

(d) There is no Divine blessing for ...

1. ... market-vendors - because they do their work in public view;
2. ... people who rear small animals - because small animals graze in other people's fields (as the Gemara explains in Bava Kama);
3. ... people who chop down good trees to sell as firewood - because people look at them askance for chopping down good trees;
4. ... nor for those who are forever trying to obtain the bigger portion - for obvious reasons. What they all have in common is that they result in Ayin ho'Ra.
(a) There is no Divine blessing in the wages of ...
1. ... a Meturgeman - because it appears that he is receiving payment for working on Shabbos;
2. ... someone who invests the property of orphans for a percentage - because the orphans are not able to be Mochel (to forego what he has done), which means that he will have to face the Father of orphans, even for the smallest mistakes.
3. ... someone who is dependent on his far-flung ships for an income - because of all the risks involved, some of which are bound to materialize (and one cannot rely on miracles).
(b) The Anshei Keneses ha'Gedolah fervently prayed that the Sofrim should not become rich - to avoid their early retirement.

(c) A Sofer can circumvent this curse (which incidentally, covers all those who deal with their goods) - if he works Lishmah, since then, his wealth will not stop him from continuing with his holy work.

(a) The residents of Baishan asked Rebbi Yochanan whether the Minhag adopted by their fathers not to travel from Tzor to Tzidon was binding on them, too.

(b) He replied with the Pasuk in Mishlei "Shema Be'ni, Musar Avicha, *ve'Al Titosh Toras Imecha*"- i.e. one cannot change the adopted Minhag of one's parents, even through Hataras Nedarim at the hand of a Beis-Din. Note: This only applies in a case when the initial Minhag was initiated with the knowledge that it was not forbidden i.e. as a new Minhag, but not if it was initiated erroneously, on the inderstanding that it was forbidden, when really, it was not (see Tosfoe 51a D.H. 'I').

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