ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous dafPesachim 49
(a) 'Arba'ah-Asar she'Chal Liheyos be'Shabbos, Meva'arin es *ha'Kol*
Milifnei ha'Shabbos, Divrei Rebbi Meir' - 'ha'Kol' comes to include Chametz
(b) The Chachamim say - 'bi'Zemano'.
(c) Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Tzadok makes a compromise - Terumah *before*
Shabbos (since he will be unable to destroy it on Shabbos, seeing as he may
feed neither it to Zarim nor to animals), and Chulin *on* Shabbos (like
Rebbi Elazar ben Yehudah Ish Bartosa on 13a).
(a) Someone who is on his way to his Se'udas Erusin - when he remembers that
he has Chametz at home, has the same Din as someone who is on his way to
Shecht the Korban Pesach or to fulfill the Mitzvah of B'ris Milah, who are
not Chayav to return home to destroy the Chametz, unless they have time to
do so and then to perform the Mitzvah on hand.
(b) The reason that they are not obligated to go home and burn the Chametz
when there is not sufficient time to perform both Mitzvos - is because he
can do Bitul Chametz, and min ha'Torah, Bitul Chametz is sufficient.
(c) The Din of somebody who is on his way to save his fellow-Jew's life or
property differs from the above - inasmuch as he is obligated to return home
even if there *is* time for him to accomplish both missions.
(d) Someone who is on his way to the border, to wait for nightfall in order
to fix an Eruv Techumin that is not for a Mitzvah - is obligated to return
home, to perform Bi'ur Chametz, even if he does not have time to accomplish
(a) Someone who has carried Kodesh meat outside the walls of Yerushalayim is
obligated to go back as long as he has not passed Tzofim (a village from
which one could still see Yerushalayim); once he had, he was permitted to
burn it wherever he remembered.
(b) If he *does* need to return - he burns the piece of flesh outside the
Beis ha'Mikdash (since Kodshim must be destroyed in the location where they
may be eaten, and, since we are speaking about Kodshim Kalim - see Tosfos
Yom-Tov and Tif'eres Yisrael - which are eaten in Yerushalayim, they must
also be burnt in Yerushalayim. Chazal allowed him to use wood that was
designated for the Mizbei'ach.
(c) Both someone who returns to burn his Chametz and someone who returns to
burn Kodshim, only need to do so of there is at least a k'Beitzah, according
to Rebbi Meir, and a k'Zayis, according to Rebbi Yehudah.
(d) The Chachamim give the Shiur as a k'Zayis for Kodesh meat and a
k'Beitzah for Chametz.
(a) In the first answer, the Gemara establishes the author of our Mishnah,
which considers Se'udas Erusin a Mitzvah, to be Rebbi Yossi, whereas the
author of the Beraisa, which considers it a Se'udas Reshus, is Rebbi
Yehudah. Alternatively, both go like Rebbi Yehudah, who admits that the
first Se'udah is a Mitzvah. Consequently, our Mishnah speaks about the first
Se'udah after the engagement, the Beraisa, about the second Se'udah.
(b) After the Se'das Erusin, the Chasan would send the Kalah gifts, and they
would make other Se'udos; these were called Se'udos Savlonos.
(c) According to Rebbi Yochanan, when Rebbi Shimon says in a Beraisa that a
Talmid-Chacham is not permitted to attend a Se'udah she'Einah shel Mitzvah -
he means a Se'udas Erusin of a Bas Kohen to a Yisrael or of a Bas Talmid-
Chacham to a bas Am ha'Aretz.
(d) If a Bas Kohen is married to a Yisrael or a Bas Talmid-Chacham to an Am
ha'Aretz - either she will become a widow, or get divorced or she will have
no children, or make him poor.
(a) When Rebbi Yochanan said that someone who marries a Bas Kohen is
destined to become wealthy - he was referring to a Talmid-Chacham, whereas
the marriage of a Bas Kohen to a Yisrael in the previous question referred
to a Yisrael Am ha'Aretz.
1. Rebbi Yehoshua, who became sick - blamed this on the fact that he was
married to a Bas Kohen (for which he was now being punished).
(c) We learn from the Pasuk in Amos: "ve'Ochlim Karim mi'Tzon ve'Agalim
Mitoch Marbek ... Lachen Ata Yigalu be'Rosh Kol Golim" - that someone who
regularly attends parties that are not Se'udos Mitzvah, will go into exile
(like the ten tribes did - for that very reason).
2. Rav Idi bar Avin, who had two sons who received Semichah - ascribed
*that* to the fact that he married a Bas Kohen (which he considered to be a
big merit) - and so did ...
3. ... Rav Papa, who became wealthy.
4. Rav Kahana, who had to flee into exile in a most unusual manner - blamed
*this* on the fact that he was married to a Bas Kohen.
(d) Besides the destruction of their houses, and death of their spouses and
children - Talmidei-Chachamim who spend too much time at the dinner-table,
can expect to forget all their learning, get involved in major disputes and
not be taken any notice of; they desecrate the Name of Hashem, the name of
their father and of their Rebbe and they stigmatizes their own name as well
as that of their descendants.
(a) A person should be willing to sell all his assets in order to marry the
daughter of a Talmid-Chacham - in case he dies or is forced to go into
exile, because he can be rest assured that his wife will educate their
children to become Talmidei-Chachamim.
1. ... 'Invei ha'Gefen be'Invei ha'Gefen' - refers to a Talmid-Chacham who
marries a Bas Talmid-Chacham, or who marries his daughter to a Talmid-
Chacham. This is something nice and acceptable.
(c) the daughter of Gedolei ha'Dor - means the daughter of men of good deeds
and righteous men.
2. ... 'Invei ha'Gefen be'Invei ha'S'neh' (inedible berries) - refers to a
Talmid-Chacham who marries a Bas Am ha'Aretz. This is something ugly.
(d) Finally, should he not succeed in finding the daughter of one of the
above three, he should seek the daughter of a Gaba'i Tzedakah, or of a
(a) The Beraisa describes Amei ha'Aretz as an abomination, their wives as a
creepy-crawly (since they are not careful in the performance of Mitzvos),
and about their daughters, the Torah writes in Ki Savo "Cursed be the one
who lies with an animal".
(b) The daughter of an Am ha'Aretz is compared to an animal - because, like
an animal, she does not understand the difference between what is right and
what is wrong (particularly with regard to the Dinim of Nidah, evident form
the Pasuk itself - see also Agados Maharsha in Eruvin 55b).
(c) We learn from "Zos Toras ha'Beheimah ve'ha'Of" - that it is only someone
who studies Torah who is permitted to eat the meat of animals and birds, but
not an Am ha'Aretz (man is only permitted to eat animals because they are
superior to them, but not Amei ha'Aretz, who are on a par with them).
(a) Rebbi Elazar forbids accompanying an Am ha'Aretz on a journey - because,
if he doesn't care about his own life, why should he care about somebody
(b) The reason that he said 'tear him apart' and not 'Shecht him' - is
because 'to Shecht him' implies with a Berachah, and he is not even worthy
that a Berachah should be made on his account.
(a) When Rebbi Akiva was an Am ha'Aretz, he used to say - 'Give me a Talmid-
Chacham, and I will bite him like a donkey'!
(b) He said 'like a donkey' and not 'like a dog' - because a donkey breaks a
bone with its bite whereas a dog does not.
(c) Rebbi Meir compares someone who marries off his daughter to an Am
ha'Aretz, to tying her up in front of a lion - because just like a lion does
not wait to eat its prey until it is dead, so too, is an Am ha'Aretz Bo'el
without first appeasing his wife (ignoring or ignorant of the Mitzvah to
first put one's wife in the right mood before Be'ilah).
(d) The only reason that the Amei-ha'Aretz did not kill the Talmidei-
Chachamim is because they needed them for commerce.
(a) The Beraisa quoted by Rebbi Chiya, compares someone who studies Torah in
the presence of an Am ha'Aretz - to someone who is Bo'el someone else's
betrothed wife before him, because the Torah writes in ve'Zos ha'Berachah
"Torah Tzivah Lanu Moshe Morashah Kehilas Ya'akov" - 'Al Tikri Morashah, Ela
Me'orasah', to teach us that the Torah is betrothed to all Jews.
(b) The wives of the Amei-ha'Aretz hate Talmidei-Chachamim even more than
(c) The Am ha'Aretz who hates the Talmid-Chacham the most is the one who
originally learnt Torah but stopped.
(a) The remaining three things said about an Am ha'Aretz are: that one does
not appoint him as an Apotropos (agent) on behalf of orphans or over the
Tzedakah funds; and one may not accompany him on a journey.
(b) The Tana Kama maintains that one does return the lost articles of an Am
ha'Aretz - because sometimes, he has righteous descendants, who deserve to
inherit whatever the Am-ha'Aretz bequeaths them.
(a) By 'Muchlefes ha'Shitah' - Rebbi Yochanan means that we will have to
switch the opinions of Rebbi Yehudah and Rebbi Meir, either here in
Pesachim, or in Berachos - probably here.
Rebbi Nasan gives the Shiur for having to return both by Chametz and by
Basar Kodesh, as *two* k'Beitzim.
(b) Rebbi Meir explains that "*ve'Achalta*" means a k'Zayis (as Achilah
always does), and "*ve'Sa'Va'ta*", that one should also drink something
(c) Rebbi Yehudah explains "ve'Achalta ve'Sa'Va'ta" - 'Achilah she'Yesh Bah
Sevi'ah' (i.e. a k'Beitzah), and then "u'Verachta".
(d) Rebbi Meir compares the Din of having to return to burn the Chametz or
the piece of Kodshim - to its Tum'ah (and the Shiur of Kabalas Tum'ah by
food is a k'Beitzah). Rebbi Yehudah, on the other hand, compares it to the
Isur (i.e. the punishment for eating Chametz or Kodshim that left its
Mechitzah), and the Shiur Isur is a k'Zayis.