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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Pesachim 39



1. ... Timcha - is Ch'rain i.e. the horseradish that is used for Maror universally.
2. ... Charchevina - is tendrils that grow around the date-palm.
(b) It makes no difference whether the Maror that one uses is ...
1. ... moist or dried.
2. But if it is pickled or cooked, one is not Yotze.
(c) 'Mevushal' means cooked, 'Shaluk', well-cooked.

(d) One may eat half a k'Zayis of one species of Maror and half a k'Zayis of another.

(a) One *is* Yotze with the stalks of the Moror.

(b) one is Yotze with ...

1. ... Demai, and with ...
2. ... Ma'aser Rishon - provided Terumas Ma'aser was removed, and with ...
3. ... Ma'aser Sheni and Hekdesh - provided they have been removed.
(c) One is not Yotze the Mitzvah of Moror with Tevel (even though it is only Tevel mi'de'Rabbanan) because it is a Mitzvah ha'Ba'ah ba'Aveirah - which applies even by an Aveirah mi'de'Rabbanan (like by the case of Tevel in a pot without a hole - on 35b).

(d) There is no difference between endives that grow in a field and garden- endives.

(a) 'Kol she'Yesh Bo S'raf' - means any kind of herb that, when one cuts it and squeezes the location of the cut, a white milky substance will emerge. 'Kol she'Panav Machsifin' - means any kind of herb that (unlike leek, which is a dark green) is a pale green color.

(b) When Ravina saw Rav Acha Brei de'Rava looking for Maror - he pointed out to him that priority should not be given to the species which was the most bitter, but rather the species which is first mentioned in the Mishnah: namely, Chazeres, lettuce; he added that various other Amora'im also gave precedence to Chazeres.

(c) Chazeres is called Chasa (and the reason that the prime Mitzvah is with Chazeres - see Agados Maharsha) - as a hint that Hashem will take pity on us like he did in Egypt (perhaps the hint is manifest here because of the Pasuk in Koheles - "ve'Elokim Yevakesh Nirdaf", because more than anything else, it is suffering that we suffer, that opens the gates of Divine mercy).

(d) The Egyptians compared to Maror - because, just like Maror is initially soft, but later the stalk becomes extremely hard, so too, did the Egyptians first hire our forefathers (they behaved sweetly towards them), but that sweetness then turned into bitterness, and they began to enslave them.

(a) we know that Maror is a vegetable, and not ...
1. ... the gall of a fish - because Maror is compared to Matzah, which grows from the ground, so too, must Maror grow from the ground.
2. ... the bark of the bitter Hirduf-tree - from the Hekesh to Matzah, which teaches us that Maror must be seeds like Matzah, which the bitter Hirduf tree is not;
3. ... a plant that is poisonous to animals called 'Harzifu' - also from the Hekesh to Matzah; because Maror must be, like Matzah, something that can be purchased with Ma'ser-Sheni money, which, in turn, must be edible, which Harzifu is *not*.
(b) We know that Maror incorporates a choice of five species, and not just one, or two - because Maror is derived from Matzah by which, there is a choice of many kinds, so too, by Maror, is there a choice of many kinds.
(a) We initially believe Rav to be saying that the Isur of Kil'ayim does not apply to any combination of the species which make up the ingredients of Maror

(b) The Gemara ask that, since the Mishnah in Kil'ayim permits specifically Chazeres and Chazeres Galin, Ulshin and Ulshei Sadeh',does this not imply that one of one pair together with one of the other pair *does* constitute Kil'ayim?

(c) We cannot answer that the Mishnah really means to permit *all* of the species mentioned there with each other - becaue Rav specifically pointed out that the Tana only permits them in pairs.

(d) The Gemara initially thinks that we do not know that from those very Mishnahs - which only permit sowing the types of 'Zera'im' (such as legumes), but vegetables, which we believe at this stage, need more space to nurture from the earth, will perhaps be forbidden to sow, even if one follows the specifications laid down by the Mishnah.




(a) The above contention is disproved from the Mishnah there, which states that it is only vegetables that are permitted in the row, and *not* Zera'im.

(b) How can we even suggest that Rav needs to inform us that the five kinds of Maror are vegetables, and not seeds - when the Mishnah specifically writes 've'Elu *Yerakos* she'Adam Yotze Bahen', and this text is endorsed by a number of Amora'im?

(c) True, most of those mentioned in our Mishnah are established vegetables. There is however, one case which we might have thought is considered a type of 'seed'- namely Chazeres, and it is *that* which Rav is coming to permit, by establishing it as a vegetable. Why would we have thought that Chazeres is a seed? Because its stalk eventually hardens (as we learnt earlier in the Sugya) like seeds tend to do; so we might have compared it to a cabbage- stalk, which Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Chanina gave the Din of a seed, to require a larger row (of a Beis Rova ha'Kav) before other species may be sown beside it.

(a) We cannot infer from the Seifa of the Mishnah, which mentions the stalks, that the Reisha is talking about the leaves - because the Seifa is coming to *establish* the Reisha, not to add to it (in which case, the Seifa is actually corroborating Rav Chisda's Chidush - namely, that it is only the stalks of Maror that the Mishnah permits, moist or dried, but not its leaves).

(b) When Rebbi Meir says in the Beraisa 'Yotz'in Bahen u've'Kelach she'Lahen Bein Lachin, Bein Yeveishin' - does this not imply that even the stalk is permitted, wet or dry?

(c) No, answers the Gemara, 'Bein Lachin, Bein Yeveishin' refers to *Bahen* (the leaves), and not to 'u've'Kelach she'Lahen'.

(d) The Rabbanan say that one is only Yotze with wet Maror, but not when it is dry (the author of our Mishnah therefore, is Rebbi Meir).

8) Maror that has withered still retains its original taste, whereas Maror that has dried does not.


(a) The Gemara thinks that Rebbi Yossi Hagelili might concede that *Maror* of Ma'aser Sheni is permitted (even though *Matzah* is not, because whereas Tevel of grain is d'Oraysa, Tevel of vegetables is only d'Rabanan.

(b) We cannot be referring to nowadays, when Maror is only mi'd'Rabbanan, whereas Matzah is mi'd'Oraysa - because nowadays, Ma'aser Sheni is not eaten in Yerushalayim. And even according to those who say that the initial Kedushah of Yerushalayim remains, nevertheless, Rami bar Chama, who posed the Sha'aleh, should have added the word 'nowadays' if that is what he was asking.

(c) The Gemara concludes that there is no difference in this regard, between Matzah and Maror (so he will not be Yotze).

(a) Chalitah means soaking in hot boiling water. The boiling water will not allow the dough to rise. Note: The Gaonim forbade Chalitah nowadays (unless it is for a very sick person) since we are not sure how it is done - see Rosh, Si'man 20. Lesisah too, they forbade for similar reasons - ibid end of Si'man 25.

(b) It is permitted to rub bran onto one's wet body. See Rosh Si'man 21, who explains this to refer to perspiratio, (since human perspiration does not turn something Chametz), but not to water.

(c) Chewing wheat to place on a wound is also forbidden.

(a) 'Elu Devarim she'Ein Ba'in li'Yedei Chametz: 'he'Afuy, ve'ha'Mevushal' cannot be understood literally - because there is no reason for the bread not to become Chametz whilst it is cooking.

(b) What the Beraisa must therefore mean is 'he'Afuy she'Bishlah'.

(c) Water dripping on to flour will not render it Chametz - provided the drops follow each other in quick succession.

(a) A Vatika made with oil and salt is permitted (because fruit-juice without water does not cause flour to rise; whereas a Vatika made with water and salt is forbidden. Note: Regarding adding salt to the Matzah, see Rosh Si'man 23.

(b) 'Kimcha de'Avishuna' - is flour that has been dried and roasted in an oven.

(c) Even though the flour has already been baked, we are afraid that it did not bake *fully*, and that it is therefore prone to becoming Chametz when added to the pot.

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