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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Pesachim 35



(a) One can fulfill one's obligation of eating Matzah on Pesach with wheat, barley, rye, oats and spelt.

(b) A Yisrael cannot fulfill his obligation with Terumah and Chalah - because of the Pasuk "Lo Sochal Alav Chametz, Shiv'as Yamim Tochal Alav Matzos", from which Chazal derive that one is only Yotze with a species where the only Isur to watch out for is Chametz, but not when there is any other Isur involved. (According to Tosfos Rebbi Akiva Eiger, the real reason is because it is a 'Mitzvah ha'Ba'ah ba'Aveirah'.)


1. One cannot fulfill one's obligation with bread of a Todah or wafers of a Nazir that have been declared Hekdesh;
2. Nor with bread of a Todah or wafers of a Nazir that have not been declared Hekdesh, but which one baked in order to bring with his own Todah.
3. One can however, fulfill one's obligation with bread of a Todah or wafers of a Nazir that have not been declared Hekdesh, and which he baked in order to sell to the public.
(a) When the Tana in the Beraisa considers spelt a kind of wheat, and oats and rye a kind of barley - he means that, when separating Terumah, one may separate spelt for wheat and vice-versa, and oats and rye for barley and vice-versa.

(b) Tana de'Bei Rebbi Yishmael learns from the Hekesh in the Pasuk in Re'ei "Lo Sochal Alav Chametz, Shiv'as Yamim Tochal Alav Matzos" - that one can only fulfill the Mitzvah of Matzah with species which *can* become Chametz.

(c) This Hekesh comes to preclude rice and millet from the Mitzvah of Matzah.

(d) A dough of rice and millet can rise, but then it becomes smelly.

(a) When Rebbi Yochanan ben Nuri in a Beraisa forbids rice and millet, because it is close to becoming Chametz - he cannot be referring to the Din of flour-offerings, because four-offerings can only be brought from wheat, not from rice or millet.

(b) Rebbi Yochanan ben Nuri must mean that it becomes real Chametz quickly - because he explicitly says that one is Chayav Kares.

(c) Since rice can become real Chametz - one can use rice-Matzos for the Mitzvah of Matzah, and one will be Chayav Kares for eating rice bread that was allowed to rise, which would not have been the case had he meant to say that it is only close to becoming Chametz, but not really Chametz.

(d) Rebbi Yochanan ben Nuri say that 'Karmis' too, is Chayav Chalah.

(a) Rav Papa attempts to learn that one is not Chayav Kares for eating bread that was kneaded with wine, honey or oil on Pesach, from the Pasuk "Lo Sochal Alav Chametz, Shiv'as Yamim Tochal Alav Matzos" - because he Darshened that anything with which one cannot be Yotze on Pesach (such as bread that was kneaded with wine, honey or oil), one is not Chayav for eating on Pesach.

(b) Rav Huna Brei de'Rav Yehoshua proves him wrong from the Beraisa of 'Hamcheihu, u'Gema'o, Im Chametz Hu, Anush Kares, ve'Im Matzah Hu, Ein Adam Yotze Yedei Chovaso ba'Pesach'.

(c) Rav Idi bar Avin then woke up - and informed them that Resh Lakish's real reason was because wine, honey or oil are 'Mei Peiros' which cannot make dough, Chametz (to be Chayav Kares, but a La'av, there is, provided water is added too - Tosfos DH 'u'Mei', quoting Rabeinu Tam).




(a) The Tana of our Mishnah declares someone who used Demai for the Mitzvah, Yotze, despite the fact that Demai is forbidden - because Chazal permitted a poor man to eat Demai. Consequently, he *could* eat Demai if he were to declare his property ('Ho'il ve'I Ba'i Mafkir le'Nechsei'), in which case, Demai is indeed fit for him.

(b) One *will* be Yotze the Mitzvah of Matzah with Ma'aser Rishon wheat from which Terumah Gedolah has not been separated - if the Levi received his Ma'aser *before* the Miru'ach (the flattening of the pile of grain following the winnowing), but not if he received it *afterwards* (when the grain has become Tevel of Terumah).

(c) The Levi comes for his Ma'aser before the Miru'ach - in order to gain the small percent more, since now he receives one tenth of the *entire* crop, instead of one tenth of what is left after a fiftieth has been removed for Terumah (10% instead of 9.8%).

(a) If the owner eats Matzah of Ma'aser Sheni or Hekdesh whose ...
1. ... principle was not *fully* redeemed - he will *not* be Yotze.
2. ... whose principle *was* fully redeemed, but the extra fifth of which was *not*, he *will* be Yotze.
(b) We might have thought that Kohanim cannot be Yotze with Matzah of Terumah or of Chalah - because the Torah requires Matzah that is fit for all Jews alike.

(c) We learn that in fact, they can - from one of the superfluous "Matzos" mentioned in the Torah.

(d) Matzah which is Tevel mi'de'Rabbanan refers to Matzah baked from wheat which grew in a pot without a hole (an Atzitz she'Eino Nakuv).

7) We learn from the Pasuk ...
1. ... "*ve'Tzarta* ha'Kesef be'Yadecha" - that in order to redeem Ma'aser Sheni, one requires specifically a minted coin i.e. with a picture on it, and not just a plain one.
2. ... "ve'Nasan ha'Kesef ve'Kam Lo" - that Hekdesh must be redeemed with something that can be given from hand to hand, but not with land.


(a) Ma'aser Oni is more lenient than Terumah Gedolah, Terumas Ma'aser, Ma'aser Rishon (which contains Terumas Ma'aser) and Ma'aser Sheni - inasmuch as it has no Kedushah.

(b) Nevertheless, someone who eats Matzah from which Ma'aser Oni has not been separated - will not be Yotze.

(c) Rebbi Shimon says that someone who eats Neveilah on Yom Kipur is not Chayav Chatas for eating on Yom Kipur - because 'Ein Isur Chal Al Isur', and the Isur of Neveilah (or at least that of Ever min ha'Chai) came first. For the same reason, Tevel is not subject to the Isur of Chametz, and we have already learned that whatever is not subject to Chametz cannot be used for the Mitzvah of Matzah.

(d) The Gemara rejects the suggestion that it is on account of the Pasuk "Lo Sochal Alav Chametz " etc. 'Mi she'Isuro Mishum Bal Tochal Chametz *Bilevad*, Yatza Zeh, she'Ein Isuro Mishun Bal Tochal Chametz Bilevad, Ela Af Mishum Bal Tochal Tevel' - because how can we insert the word "Bilevad," when the Torah did not do so?

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