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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Pesachim 28



(a) Perhaps Chametz that is cast into the sea does not need to be broken up - because it anyway becomes soggy and unusable, so one does not need to worry that someone might find it and eat it (as one does when throwing it into the wind).

(b) Rebbi Yossi rules in Avodah-Zarah - that Avodah-Zarah must be ground and thrown into the wind or cast into the sea; and the Sha'aleh is exactly the same as the one in our Sugya: whether the word 'ground' extends to the second case (of casting the Avodah-Zarah into the sea) or not.

(c) Rabah rules that Avodah-Zarah does *not* require grinding into dust - because Avodah-Zarah is cast into the *Salt*-Sea (where ships do not sail); Chametz on the other hand,*does* require breaking up into crumbs - because it can be thrown into *any* sea, and there is always a suspicion that a passing ship will find it and withdraw it. Rav Yosef says that Avodah-Zarah, which will *not* become soggy. must be ground, whereas Chametz, which *will*, does not require breaking-up.


1. Rabah establishes the second Beraisa (which requires Avodah-Zarah to be broken-up before being cast into the sea) - by any sea other than the Salt- Sea (if for some reason, one cannot get to the Salt-Sea).
2. Rav Yosef explains the first Beraisa (which requires Chametz to be broken into crumbs) - not by bread, but by whole kernels of wheat, which do not automatically become soggy.
(a) According to Rebbi Yehudah, one transgresses a La'av - from midday of Erev Pesach.

(b) In his opinion, *before and after Pesach* one transgresses an ordinary La'av, whereas *during Pesach* one transgresses a La'av which carries with it a Chiyuv Kares.

(c) According to ...

1. ... Rebbi Shimon - the La'av is confined to Pesach itself, and does not apply to either before or after Pesach.
2. ... Rebbi Yossi Hagelili - there is no La'av that forbids deriving benefit from Chametz, even *on* Pesach (provided he does not retain it - because then he will transgress Bal Yera'eh etc. see Tosfos 21b DH 'Avar').
(d) The author of the section of Beraisa which reads 'u'mi'Sha'ah she'Asur ba'Achilah, Asur be'Hana'ah - is the Tana Kama (i.e. Rebbi Yehudah, who forbids Chametz be'Hana'ah even *before* Pesach).



(a) Rebbi Yehudah learns from the Pasuk ...
1. ... "Lo Ye'achel Chametz" - that there is a La'av not to eat Chametz (or to derive benefit from it) *on Pesach* itself.
2. ... "ve'Chol Machmetzes Lo Sochelu" - that there is a La'av not to eat Chametz (or to derive benefit from it) *after Pesach* (alternatively, 1. and 2. could be reversed).
3. ... "Lo Sochal Alav Chametz" - that there is a La'av not to eat (or to derive benefit from) Chametz from the time that the Korban Pesach is eligible to be brought i.e. from mid-day of Erev Pesach.
(b) Rebbi Shimon learns from ...
1. ... "ve'Chol Machmetzes Lo Sochelu" - that the Isur of Chametz applies even to something which did not rise through its own kind i.e. yeast, but through another kind i.e. dregs of wine (see Tosfos DH 'Machmas').
2. ... "Lo Ye'achel Chametz (ha'Yom Atem Yotz'im)" - like Rebbi Yossi Hagelili, who learns from this Pasuk that the prohibition of eating Chametz on Pesach Miyzrayim only applied on the day that they left (i.e. on the fifteenth of Nisan).
(a) Rebbi Yehudah learns that bread that became Chametz through a different kind is forbidden - from the fact that the Torah uses the word 'Machmetzes' (rather than Chametz).

(b) Rebbi Yehudah may agree with Rebbi Yossi Hagelili (that the Chametz of Egypt was only Asur for the one day - because of the juxtaposition of "ha'Yom" to "Lo Ye'achel Chametz". Alternatively, Rebbi Yehudah may not Darshen Semuchin at all. (Note: This latter opinion seems to concur with other Gemaras, which maintain that Rebbi Yehudah only Darshens Semuchin in Sefer Devarim.)

(c) Rebbi Yehudah learns the Hekesh, not Chametz to Matzah, but Matzah to Chametz - to teach us that just as the Isur of Chametz applies even nowadays, so too, does the Mitzvah of Matzah (in spite of the fact that initially, the Torah connects the Mitzvah of Matzah to that of the Korban Pesach, which does *not*).

(a) Rebbi Yehudah learns from "ba'Erev Tochlu Matzos" - that even someone who is Tamei or far from Yerushalayim, even in the time of the Beis Hamikdash, and who is Patur from bringing the Korban Pesach, is nevertheless Chayav to eat Matzah.

(b) Rebbi Shimon learns the Din of someone who was Tamei or distant from Yerushalayim from an Arel or a Ben Nechar. Since *they* were Chayav to eat Matzah and Maror, there is no reason why someone who was Tamei or distant from Yerushalayim should be different.


1. An Arel is someone whose two brothers died as a result of the Bris Milah, and who, consequently, is not permitted to have the Bris Milah performed on him.
2. A Ben Nechar is an idolater who was disqualified from bringing the Korban Pesach, and who did Teshuvah after the time to sacrifice the Pesach had expired - see Tosfos DH 'Kol'.
(d) We know that an Arel and a Ben Nechar are obligated to eat Matzah and Maror from the Pasuk "Kol Arel Lo Yochal Bo" (and a similar Pasuk is written by Ben Nechar), from which Chazal infer 'Bo Eino Ochel, Aval Ochel Hu be'Matzah u'Maror'.
6) The many seemingly superfluous Pesukim such as "Shiv'as Yamim Matzos Tochelu" - do not refer to the Mitzvah of eating Matzah at all, but to add an Asei to the La'av of not eating Chametz. And the proof for this lies in the phrase 'for seven days' which the Torah uses by all of those Pesukim; and there is certainly no Mitzvah to eat Matzah for seven days.

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