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Pesachim 14

PESACHIM 14 - has been sponsored through a generous gift from Eli Rosengarten of Zurich, Switzerland, and family



(a) The Kohanim would burn Kodshim meat that had touched a Rishon le'Tum'ah and was now a Sheni, together with Kodshim meat that was a Rishon (the Gemara will amend this later).

(b) A Tamei Mes (someone who touches a corpse) is an Av ha'Tum'ah, who transmits Tum'ah even to people and vessels, whereas a Tamei Sheretz is only a Rishon, who can transmit Tum'ah only to food. It also renders them an Av like itself, whereas a Tamei Sheretz renders food that touches him, a Sheni.

(c) According to Rebbi Akiva's testimony, the Kohanim used to burn oil that became Tamei through a Tevul-Yom, in a lamp that had touched a Tamei Mes and was itself an Av ha'Tum'ah.

(d) A Tevul-Yom is a Tamei person who Toveled that day, and (assuming he was a Kohen) was waiting for night-fall before being permitted to eat Terumah. Until nightfall, he remains a Sheni le'Tum'ah. By burning the Shelishi oil in a lamp that was a Rishon, they would raise its level of Tum'ah from a Shelishi to a Sheni.

(a) Rebbi Meir derived from one of the opinions in our Mishnah - that one may burn Terumah-Chametz that is Tahor (which must anyway be burned on Erev Pesach) together with Terumah Temei'ah, even though they render it Tamei in the process.

(b) The dispute between Rebbi Eliezer and Rebbi Yehoshua concerns, not whether one may burn Terumah Tehorah together with Terumah Temei'ah (which is forbidden), but whether one may burn it together with Terumah Teluyah.

(a) We learn from the Pasuk "ve'Chi Yiten Mayim Al Zera, ve'Nafal mi'Nivlasam Alav, Tamei *Hu*" - that if the carcass of a Sheretz falls on *seeds* which were Muchshar Lakabel Tum'ah, the seeds become Tamei, but they cannot transmit Tum'ah to other seeds (meaning any other food) like themselves.

(b) According to ...

1. ... Rav Ada bar Ahavah quoting Rava - the Pasuk refers to Terumah as well, but not to Kodshim.
2. ... Ravina quoting Rava - it refers to Kodshim as well, since the Torah gives no indication that it is restricted to Chulin alone, or to Chulin and Terumah exclusively.
(c) The problem with our Mishnah, according to Ravina quoting Rava is - since food does not transmit Tum'ah to food, how did the flesh of Kodshim become Tamei through its contact with a V'lad ha'Tum'ah?
(a) If, as we just suggested, the flesh became Tamei through the water on the flesh of the V'lad - then why does the Tana say ' ... *Im ha'Basar* she'Nitma bi'Vlad ha'Tum'ah', and not *im ha'Basar u'Mashkin*... ?

(b) The Gemara therefore explains that, even though food does not transmit Tum'ah to other food mi'd'Oraysa, it does, mi'de'Rabbanan (and our Mishnah is speaking about Kodshim that became Tamei mi'de'Rabbanan through contact with a V'lad.

(a) We initially thought that Rebbi Akiva was speaking about an *earthenware* lamp that touched a Tamei Mes (making it a Rishon) - in fact, he is speaking about a *metal* one (which becomes an Av). Consequently, by burning oil that is a Shelishi in it, one is transforming a Shelishi into a Rishon, one level higher than according to Rebbi Chanina S'gan ha'Kohanim.

(b) We know that any metal that touches a dead person, or a Tamei Mes, attains the same degree of Tum'ah as that what it touched - from the Pasuk in Chukas "ba'Chalal Cherev", from which Chazal derive 'Cherev, Harei Hu ke'Chalal'.




(a) 'Pasul' refers to the lowest degree of Tum'ah (by Terumah, a Shelishi), which does *not* transmit Tum'ah further. 'Tamei' refers to any degree above that, which *does*.

(b) We might have used this fact to answer our Kashya - by establishing Rebbi Akiva in our Mishnah even by an earthenware lamp: because whereas Rebbi Chanina permits increasing the level of Kodshim meat from a Shelishi le'Tum'ah (which is *Tamei* - since there is a Revi'i by Kodshim), Rebbi Akiva goes further to permit even the burning of a Shelishi by Terumah oil (which is only Pasul) in a lamp which is a Rishon - raising its level from a Pasul Shelishi to a Sheni, which is Tamei.

(c) Rav Yehudah preferred to establish the Mishnah by a metal lamp, and to give the former answer - because otherwise, why did Rebbi Akiva refer to a lamp which was Tamei Mes, why not to one which was Tamei Sheretz, unless it is because he is referring to a metal lamp, which became an Av ha'Tum'ah, because of 'Cherev, Harei Hu ke'Chalal'.

(a) Rebbi Akiva cannot be talking about adding Tum'ah mi'de'Rabbanan by burning the oil in the lamp that touched a Tamei Mes - since mi'de'Rabbanan, all liquids become a Rishon le'Tum'ah anyway. So he must be talking about adding Tum'ah d'Oraysa.

(b) The reason that the Rabbanan were strict with regard to liquids, to say that anything which renders Terumah Pasul, makes liquids a Rishon - is because liquid is prone to immediate Tum'ah, since it does *not* require a Hechsher Lekabel Tum'ah (which solid food *does*).

(c) The sole exception to this rule - is liquid that become Tamei through touching a Tevul-Yom. It becomes a Shelishi (where this is appropriate), and not a Rishon, since a Tevul-Yom is Metamei mi'd'Oraysa, and what is d'Oraysa does not require strengthening.

(a) When Rebbi Meir says 'and from their words we can learn that one may burn Terumah Tehorah together with Terumah Temei'ah on Pesach', he cannot be referring to Rebbi Chanina S'gan ha'Kohanim - because Rebbi Chanina referred to the burning of *Tamei* together with Tamei, whereas *he* is now permitting burning *Tahor* (Terumah Tehorah in the sixth hour) together with Tamei.

(b) Nor can he referring to Rebbi Akiva - since Rebbi Akiva permitted the burning of *Pasul* together with Tamei, whilst *he* now comes to permit burning *Tahor* together with Tamei.

(c) Perhaps Rebbi Meir is referring to Rebbi Chanina S'gan ha'Kohanim after all, and he is speaking about burning meat which became Tamei through an Av ha'Tum'ah d'Oraysa together with meat that became Tamei through a a V'lad (V'lad) de'Rabbanan (i.e. by touching a vessel that became Tamei through contact with a Tamei liquid). And Rebbi Meir comparing an Isur de'Rabbanan (Terumah Chametz in the sixth hour) to Tum'ah de'Rabbanan, now derives from Rebbi Chanina S'gan ha'Kohanim, that one may turn an Isur mi'de'Rabbanan, into Tum'ah d'Oraysa.

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