ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous dafPesachim 14
PESACHIM 14 - has been sponsored through a generous gift from Eli
Rosengarten of Zurich, Switzerland, and family
(a) The Kohanim would burn Kodshim meat that had touched a Rishon
le'Tum'ah and was now a Sheni, together with Kodshim meat that was a
Rishon (the Gemara will amend this later).
(b) A Tamei Mes (someone who touches a corpse) is an Av ha'Tum'ah, who
transmits Tum'ah even to people and vessels, whereas a Tamei Sheretz is
only a Rishon, who can transmit Tum'ah only to food. It also renders them
an Av like itself, whereas a Tamei Sheretz renders food that touches him,
(c) According to Rebbi Akiva's testimony, the Kohanim used to burn oil
that became Tamei through a Tevul-Yom, in a lamp that had touched a Tamei
Mes and was itself an Av ha'Tum'ah.
(d) A Tevul-Yom is a Tamei person who Toveled that day, and (assuming he
was a Kohen) was waiting for night-fall before being permitted to eat
Terumah. Until nightfall, he remains a Sheni le'Tum'ah. By burning the
Shelishi oil in a lamp that was a Rishon, they would raise its level of
Tum'ah from a Shelishi to a Sheni.
(a) Rebbi Meir derived from one of the opinions in our Mishnah - that one
may burn Terumah-Chametz that is Tahor (which must anyway be burned on
Erev Pesach) together with Terumah Temei'ah, even though they render it
Tamei in the process.
(b) The dispute between Rebbi Eliezer and Rebbi Yehoshua concerns, not
whether one may burn Terumah Tehorah together with Terumah Temei'ah (which
is forbidden), but whether one may burn it together with Terumah Teluyah.
(a) We learn from the Pasuk "ve'Chi Yiten Mayim Al Zera, ve'Nafal
mi'Nivlasam Alav, Tamei *Hu*" - that if the carcass of a Sheretz falls on
*seeds* which were Muchshar Lakabel Tum'ah, the seeds become Tamei, but
they cannot transmit Tum'ah to other seeds (meaning any other food) like
(b) According to ...
1. ... Rav Ada bar Ahavah quoting Rava - the Pasuk refers to Terumah as
well, but not to Kodshim.
(c) The problem with our Mishnah, according to Ravina quoting Rava is -
since food does not transmit Tum'ah to food, how did the flesh of Kodshim
become Tamei through its contact with a V'lad ha'Tum'ah?
2. ... Ravina quoting Rava - it refers to Kodshim as well, since the Torah
gives no indication that it is restricted to Chulin alone, or to Chulin
and Terumah exclusively.
(a) If, as we just suggested, the flesh became Tamei through the water on
the flesh of the V'lad - then why does the Tana say ' ... *Im ha'Basar*
she'Nitma bi'Vlad ha'Tum'ah', and not *im ha'Basar u'Mashkin*... ?
(b) The Gemara therefore explains that, even though food does not transmit
Tum'ah to other food mi'd'Oraysa, it does, mi'de'Rabbanan (and our Mishnah
is speaking about Kodshim that became Tamei mi'de'Rabbanan through contact
with a V'lad.
(a) We initially thought that Rebbi Akiva was speaking about an
*earthenware* lamp that touched a Tamei Mes (making it a Rishon) - in
fact, he is speaking about a *metal* one (which becomes an Av).
Consequently, by burning oil that is a Shelishi in it, one is transforming
a Shelishi into a Rishon, one level higher than according to Rebbi Chanina
(b) We know that any metal that touches a dead person, or a Tamei Mes,
attains the same degree of Tum'ah as that what it touched - from the
Pasuk in Chukas "ba'Chalal Cherev", from which Chazal derive 'Cherev,
Harei Hu ke'Chalal'.
(a) 'Pasul' refers to the lowest degree of Tum'ah (by Terumah, a
Shelishi), which does *not* transmit Tum'ah further. 'Tamei' refers to
any degree above that, which *does*.
(b) We might have used this fact to answer our Kashya - by establishing
Rebbi Akiva in our Mishnah even by an earthenware lamp: because whereas
Rebbi Chanina permits increasing the level of Kodshim meat from a Shelishi
le'Tum'ah (which is *Tamei* - since there is a Revi'i by Kodshim), Rebbi
Akiva goes further to permit even the burning of a Shelishi by Terumah oil
(which is only Pasul) in a lamp which is a Rishon - raising its level
from a Pasul Shelishi to a Sheni, which is Tamei.
(c) Rav Yehudah preferred to establish the Mishnah by a metal lamp, and to
give the former answer - because otherwise, why did Rebbi Akiva refer to a
lamp which was Tamei Mes, why not to one which was Tamei Sheretz, unless
it is because he is referring to a metal lamp, which became an Av
ha'Tum'ah, because of 'Cherev, Harei Hu ke'Chalal'.
(a) Rebbi Akiva cannot be talking about adding Tum'ah mi'de'Rabbanan by
burning the oil in the lamp that touched a Tamei Mes - since
mi'de'Rabbanan, all liquids become a Rishon le'Tum'ah anyway. So he must
be talking about adding Tum'ah d'Oraysa.
(b) The reason that the Rabbanan were strict with regard to liquids, to
say that anything which renders Terumah Pasul, makes liquids a Rishon - is
because liquid is prone to immediate Tum'ah, since it does *not* require
a Hechsher Lekabel Tum'ah (which solid food *does*).
(c) The sole exception to this rule - is liquid that become Tamei through
touching a Tevul-Yom. It becomes a Shelishi (where this is appropriate),
and not a Rishon, since a Tevul-Yom is Metamei mi'd'Oraysa, and what is
d'Oraysa does not require strengthening.
(a) When Rebbi Meir says 'and from their words we can learn that one may
burn Terumah Tehorah together with Terumah Temei'ah on Pesach', he cannot
be referring to Rebbi Chanina S'gan ha'Kohanim - because Rebbi Chanina
referred to the burning of *Tamei* together with Tamei, whereas *he* is
now permitting burning *Tahor* (Terumah Tehorah in the sixth hour)
together with Tamei.
(b) Nor can he referring to Rebbi Akiva - since Rebbi Akiva permitted the
burning of *Pasul* together with Tamei, whilst *he* now comes to permit
burning *Tahor* together with Tamei.
(c) Perhaps Rebbi Meir is referring to Rebbi Chanina S'gan ha'Kohanim
after all, and he is speaking about burning meat which became Tamei
through an Av ha'Tum'ah d'Oraysa together with meat that became Tamei
through a a V'lad (V'lad) de'Rabbanan (i.e. by touching a vessel that
became Tamei through contact with a Tamei liquid). And Rebbi Meir
comparing an Isur de'Rabbanan (Terumah Chametz in the sixth hour) to
Tum'ah de'Rabbanan, now derives from Rebbi Chanina S'gan ha'Kohanim, that
one may turn an Isur mi'de'Rabbanan, into Tum'ah d'Oraysa.