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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Pesachim 8



(a) It is unnecessary to search a yard for Chametz - because one can assume that the birds will have eaten it.

(b) One may use sunlight to search an open porch.

(c) When the Gemara forbids searching for Chametz by sunlight - it is referring to the areas of a room which the sun penetrates, but which are not in the direct line of sunlight (since those which *are*, have the same Din as an open porch).

(a) We learn from the Pasuk "ve'Nogah ka'Or Tihye ... Karnayim mi'Yado Lo" (which compares Tzadikim before Hashem to a single flame before a double one) - that a double flame is superior to a single one.

(b) This is also manifest in the Mitzvah of Havdalah, where a double flame is required.

(c) The Mitzvah of Bedikas Chametz however, is different, inasmuch as a double flame interferes with the Bedikah: either because one cannot get into the cracks with it (for fear that it will cause a fire), or because, unlike a smaller one, it tends to shine backwards, instead of forwards, or because, due to the size of the flame, one inevitably holds back, for fear of causing a fire, or because, whereas a small flame remains still, a double one tends to flicker, making searching more difficult.

(a) The Beraisa also includes in the list of places that do not require Bedikah - stables, chicken-runs, and storehouses of straw, wine and oil.

(b) When Raban Shimon ben Gamliel obligates the space underneath a dividing bed to be searched - he is speaking about a tall bed whose space underneath can conveniently be used; whereas in the *second* Beraisa, where he exempts them from Bedikah, he is referring to low beds with little space underneath.

(a) A wine-cellar from which one takes small quantities of wine during the meal requires Bedikah - whereas oil-cellars, due to the fact that one generally knows in advance how much oil will be needed, do not.

(b) In Bavel, they gave a place where beer is stored the same Din as a wine-storage room, from which wine is sometimes taken in small quantities.

(c) A room where small fish are stored requires Bedikah, whereas one where large fish are stored, does not.

(d) A room where one stores ...

  1. ... salt or wax - requires Bedikah, and so does one where ...
  2. ... wood or dates are st
(a) The Beraisa could not possibly be exempting the searcher from stretching his hands deep into the hole in a wall because of the danger of scorpions - because if there were scorpions in the wall, he would not use it for Chametz (or for anything else for that matter), and any location that is not used for Chametz, is Patur from Bedikas Chametz.

(b) When the Mishnah exempts one from the need to destroy even *known* Chametz lying under a pile of rubble - it is speaking about Chametz which is covered by rubble that is at least three Tefachim deep, in which case a dog will not dig it up.

(a) It would not be correct to say that 'Sheluchei Mitzvah Einan Nizokin' does not apply to someone who searches for Chametz in a wall where there are scorpions, because, in the process of searching, he may also search for a needle that he dropped there - because even if he were to do so, he would still retain his status of a Sheli'ach Mitzvah. Why is that? Because Chazal have already declared that if someone donates Tzedakah on the condition that his son (who is sick) will live, he has nevertheless fulfilled the Mitzvah of Tzedakah and is called righteous in this matter. This is because when a Jew fulfils a Mitzvah with an ulterior motive, that motive does not detract from the Lishmah, which we know he has in mind, too (i.e. he is performing this action with dual motives). And the same will apply here to someone who searches for Chametz whilst also searching for a needle.

(b) We contend with the danger that he may be stung by a scorpion - not during the search, but after he has concluded it, when he is no longer in the process of fulfilling the Mitzvah.




(a) According to Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak, the author of the Beraisa, which exempts the owner from searching for Chametz in a hole in a wall because of the danger of gentiles - is Pelimu, who says that gentiles who see a Jew searching in a wall, will accuse him of witchcraft, and there is a strong fear that they will take severe action.

(b) The hole is nevertheless in use - during the day, using sunlight, in a way that does not attract the attention of the gentile, which is hardly possible if he begins searching it with a torch at night.

(c) Chazal absolved the owner from searching despite the principle 'Sheluchei Mitzvah Einan Nizokin' - because this principle does not apply when the danger is stark, such as in our case.

(d) The proof for this lies with Shmuel ha'Navi - who queried Hashem's command to go and annoint David as King, on the grounds that should King Shaul get wind of this, he would be certain to kill him (in spite of the fact that he was a Sheli'ach Mitzvah).

(a) When they asked Rav about the Talmidim who lived in the valley going to learn early in the morning and late at night (on account of the danger of their being attacked by demons) - he replied that he would gladly take the danger upon his own shoulders, meaning that they had nothing to fear, because the merits of the Mitzvah would protect them.

(b) Rebbi Elazar said that Sheluchei Mitzvah will come to no harm, neither on their outward journey, nor on the return journey. He learns this from the Pasuk in Ki Sisa "u'Fanisa va'Boker, Vehalachta le'Ohalecha" - which teaches us that, every Jew will be able to go Yerushalayim for Yom-Tov, without the need to fear that his gentile neighbors will steal his belongings before his homecoming.

(c) If people who perform this Mitzvah, and whose property is prone to theft, were assured that it is nevertheless safe to travel, how much more so is the Torah's assurance effective when the danger is not so stark.

(d) "ve'Lo Yachmod Ish es Artzecha" - teaches us that only someone who owns land is obligated to perform the Mitzvah of Aliyas ha'Regel each Yom- Tov (see Agados Maharsha).

9) The sweetest fruits in Eretz Yisrael and the finest hot springs - should really have been situated in Yerushalayim - Hashem's Holy city. The reason that they are not - is so that people should not say that they went to Yerushalayim on Yom-Tov in order to taste its sweet fruits and to bathe in its hot springs.


(a) When the Gemara asks 'Martef Ma'an Dakar Shemei' - it means to query the need for the Gemara to ask which sort of wine-cellar must be searched, seeing as no-one has as yet, exempted wine-cellars in general from Bedikah.

(b) In fact, answers the Gemara, we need to add a few words to the Mishnah - which will now read 'Kol Makom she'Ein Machnisin Bo Chametz ... ve'Otzros Yayin, ve'Otzros Shemen Nami Ein Tzarich Bedikah'.

(c) 'Ke'min Ga'am' that Rebbi Yochanan describes in Beis Shamai - is like the Greek letter Gama, which is equivalent to a final 'Chaf'.

(d) According to Shmuel, 'Sh'tei Shuros ha'Chitzonos she'Hen ha'Elyonos' means - the very top outer row and the one behind it.

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