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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

Introduction to Pesachim

Pesachim 2

PESACHIM 2 - has been sponsored through a generous gift from Eli Rosengarten of Zurich, Switzerland, and family



(a) Chazal instituted the Mitzvah of Bedikas Chametz on the eve of the fourteenth of Nisan - to prevent the transgression of 'Bal Yera'eh' and 'Bal Yimatzei' (according to Tosfos, it is because Chazal were afraid that otherwise, one may forget and eat Chametz on Pesach).

(b) Any location where Chametz was not brought during the year does not require Bedikah.

(c) Beis Hillel says that it is the two upper-outer rows that require Bedikah.

(d) A wine-cellar from which wine is taken in small quantities is a place where Chametz is taken - because the Shamash sometimes carries a piece of bread with him when he goes to fetch wine during the meal.

(a) Rav Yehudah explains 'Or le'Arba'ah-Asar' to mean 'the eve of the fourteenth'.

(b) Rav Yehudah translates the Pasuk "ha'Boker Or" - as if it would written 'ha'Boker He'ir', and the morning became light (as a verb rather than as a noun). Note: According to Rav Yehudah (and this is the Gemara's conclusion) Or can and does, mean *'light'*, but not 'the light of *day*'.

(c) One should not travel at night-time because of wild animals and robbers (according to Tosfos DH 'Yikanes' it is because of demons. See also Rashi, 8b DH 'Mahu Lemeisei').

(d) Rav Yehudah explains ....

1. ... the Pasuk "u'che'Or Boker Yizrach Shemesh" - 'and like the morning lights up in this world, Hashem will make the sun shine for the Tzadikim in the World to Come.
2. ... "Vayikra Elokim la'Or Yom" - 'Hashem called light and placed it in charge of the day'.
3. ... and "ve'la'Choshech Kara Laylah" - 'and He called darkness and placed it in charge of night'.
(a) If "la'Or" were to mean the gradually increasing light, then "ve'la'Chochesh" (in "ve'la'Choshech Kara Laylah") would also have to mean 'and to the gradually increasing darkness He called night'. But that is impossible, since Chazal have already taught us that it is not night-time until it is completely dark i.e. when the stars come out?

(b) In fact, all the Heavenly bodies are obligated to praise Hashem, whether they shine or not. The reason the Torah writes "Haleluhu Kol Kochvei Or" - is to teach us that the light shed by the stars is also called light (This is important in the context of someone who makes a Neder not to derive benefit from light).

(c) We know that all the Heavenly bodies are obligated to praise Hashem from the Pasuk in Tehilim "Haleluhu Kol Tzeva'kav".




(a) We initially explain the Pasuk "la'Or Yakum Rotzei'ach, Yiktal Ani ve'Evyon, uva'Laylah Yehi ka'Ganav" to mean - that by the light of day, the murderer attacks the poor and needy and kills them, and by night he breaks into the houses like a thief.

(b) Rav Yehudah explain it to mean - that if it is clear to you like the light, that the thief who is breaking into your house is prepared to kill, then he is a murderer, and you are permitted to kill him to save yourself; but should you harbor doubts like the night-time, then you must treat him like a thief, and killing him is prohibited.

(c) One is forbidden to kill one's father, even if he breaks in like a thief - because that is the case of doubt mentioned in the previous question.

(a) Rav Yehudah explains the Pasuk ...
1. ... "Yechshechu Kochvei Nishpo, *Yekav le'Or va'Ayin*" - (said by Iyov in the form of a self-curse) to mean: 'May I hope for the light, but not find it'.
2. ... "Va'Omar Ach Choshech Yeshufeni ve'Laylah Or Ba'adeni" - (said by David Hamelech, after he discovered that his sin with Bas- Sheva had been forgiven) 'At first I thought that darkness would envelop me in the World to Come (which is compared to the day); now even This World (which is compared to night) has become light'.
(b) Rebbi Yehudah says in a Mishnah later "Bodkin Or Arba'ah-Asar u've'Arba'ah-Asar Shachris u've'Sha'as ha'Bi'ur" - clearly indicating that 'Or' means the eve of, and not the morning.
(a) Rebbi Eliezer ben Ya'akov forbids one to do work on the fourteenth of Nisan 'mi'Sha'as ha'Or'; Rebbi Yehudah says from sun-rise.

(b) Even if 'mi'Sha'as ha'Or' of Rebbi Eliezer ben Ya'akov would mean from dawn-break, there would be no problem (as to why he permits the night and forbids the day) - since for that, we have a precedent, in the Dinim of Ta'anis Tzibur, which only begins at dawn-break.

(c) According to Rebbi Shimon, a Ta'anis Tzibur begins from the time the cock crows in the morning.

(a) Rebbi Yehudah answers that we have a precedent for part of the day being permitted and part being forbidden - by Chametz, which is permitted until mid-day and forbidden after that.

(b) Rebbi Eliezer ben Ya'akov counters - that one cannot bring Chametz (d'Oraysa) as a precedent for the Rabbinical prohibition of not doing work on Erev Pesach.

(c) The two hours which the Rabbanan added to the Torah's Shiur are also no precedent for Melachah, which is purely de'Rabbanan, whereas the extra two hours of Achilas Chametz are really an extension of the Torah's prohibition (i.e. to safeguard it).

(a) They would only light the torches when the new moon was seen on the thirtieth of the month (but not on the thirty-first).

(b) The torches would be lit on the following night, the thirty-first. Consequently, whenever there were no torches, the people would know that the previous month had been a full one.

(c) The Gemara proves from 'le'Or Iburo' - that 'Or' means 'the eve of'.

(d) There no disproof for Rav Yehudah from the Beraisa 'Hayah Omed Kol ha'Laylah u'Makriv Al ha'Mizbei'ach *le'Orah* Ta'un Kidush' - because he too, agrees, that *'Orah'* means 'day'; it is *'Or'* which means 'night'.

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