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by Rabbi Ephraim Becker
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld

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Pesachim 111


(a) [R. Yehudah citing Shmuel] Mixed drinks all combine, except water.
(b) [R. Yochanan] Even water mixed with water (e.g. hot with cold).
1. [R. Papa] This is only water of differing temperatures.
2. But even R. Yochanan would not claim combination by like temperatures.
(a) [Resh Lakish] Four practices are considered suicidal:
1. Relieving oneself between a palm tree and a wall.
2. Passing between two palm trees.
3. Drinking borrowed water.
4. Passing over spilt water (even that which was spilt by one's wife in his presence).
(b) The risk is only if the space between the palm and the wall is less than four Amos, and then only if there is no other path.
(c) The risk is only if there is no thoroughfare between the palm trees.
(d) The risk is only if a minor borrowed the water, and only in an uninhabited place, and only if it is water (not other drinks).
(e) The risk is only if dirt has not been sprinkled over the spilt water, and no one has spat in it, a day has not passed, 60 Nigri have not passed over it, the person is on foot, unshod.
(f) All of these qualifications do not apply in the presence of a risk of Keshafim (as the cited incident demonstrates).
(a) One must not pass between the following, nor the following pass between two men:
1. Dog, palm tree, woman.
2. Others add Chazir, and others add snake.
3. The remedy for such passing is a Pasuk beginning and ending with either E-l or Lo.
4. A Niddah passing between two men is lethal at the beginning of her Nidus, and causes an argument between them later on (the remedy is a Pasuk beginning and ending with E-l).
(b) Two women facing each other at two sides of a crossroads are certainly engaged in sorcery.
1. In such an encounter one should take an alternate route.
2. If that is not available, one should pass hand-in-hand with another man.
3. If no one is there, one recites a curse formula.
(c) An encounter with a woman who has emerged from the Mikveh will result in an illicit spirit descending on whichever person has relations first.
(d) The correction for such an encounter is a Pasuk (Tehilim 107:40).
(a) Tehilim 23:4 is understood to refer to one who sleeps in the shade of a palm tree or shaded from the moon.
(b) The danger of the shade of a palm is only when the shade of one tree does not overlap the shade of the next (a lone tree).
(c) Question: Then why does the Bereisa speak of the dangers of the shade of a lone palm in a *Chatzer*?
(d) Answer: It is dangerous in a Chatzer even if the shade of one falls on the other.
(e) Being shaded from the moon is only dangerous by an eastern moon (the shade is to the west, i.e. at the end of the month).


(a) One who relieves himself on a palm stump brings on paralysis.
(b) One who rests his head there brings on a (migraine) headache.
(c) One who passes over a palm follows the destiny of the tree unless he puts his heal on it.
(a) Five types of shade are dangerous.
(b) The principle is that the more leaves a tree has, as well as the harder the tree, the more dangerous is its shade.
(c) An exception is the Kro Masa tree, which is hard, but its shade is not dangerous (since Shedim are scared of it).
(d) It was reported that R. Kehana stayed away from all shade.
(e) The names of the Shedim who reside in various places are listed.
(f) Question: Of what significance is this information?
(g) Answer: To the writing of a Kemeya.
(h) Question: Why are we taught that a particular Shed has no eyes?
(i) Answer: One can flee from it (as reported in the incident wherein the Talmid Chacham escaped and the Shed grabbed a palm instead).
(j) Question: Why are we taught that a Zardata growing near a city has no fewer than 60 Shedim?
(k) Answer: For writing a Kemeya (when a Talmid Chacham wrote a Kemeya only referring to one Shed, the Shedim mocked him, unlike when a Talmid Chacham wrote referring to all sixty).
(l) There are two types of Ketev, morning and afternoon, each with its own route to the person's food.
(m) Abaye arranged for a Ketev to confront R. Papa, not R. Huna because R. Papa's mazel was good, and he need not worry about the Shed.
(a) Shedim are certainly to be found from the first to 16th of Tamuz; from then on they may or may not be around.
(b) They are found in Chatzav grass less than an Amah tall, in the morning and evening shadows, especially the shadows of a privy.
(a) The following practices bring on poor vision:
1. Combing one's hair when it is dry
2. Drinking drips from a barrel
3. Putting on shoes when one's feet are still wet.
(b) The following are hazardous regarding poverty:
1. Hanging one's bread (as in the popular expression).
(i) This is not the case for meat and fish.
(ii) These are normally hung.
2. Bran in the house.
3. Crumbs in the house.
(i) The Shedim rest on them on the nights of Shabbos and of the fourth days.
(ii) The agent appointed over sustenance is called Nekiyah, and that over poverty is called Naval (each enters when the house is either clean or not, respectively).
4. Dirt on the spout of a pitcher.
(c) Drinking from a plate can cause a weakness of the eyes.
(d) The following bring on unexplained fear (for a number of days).
1. Eating cress without first washing his hands (30 days).
2. Letting blood without then washing his hands (7 days).
3. Trimming hair without then washing his hands (3 days).
4. Cutting his nails without then washing his hands (1 day).
(e) A habit of putting one's hands to one's nostrils leads to fear.
(f) One's hand to one's forehead is a step to sleep.
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