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by Rabbi Ephraim Becker
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld

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Pesachim 93

Pesachim 81 - 95: We are grateful to Mr. Mark Frankel of Queens, N.Y. for suggesting the idea of "Point by Point Summaries" and sponsoring its initial two weeks -- Tizkeh l'Mitzvos!


(a) There is a list of 12 types of people who bring Pesach Sheni.
(b) Question: Why then does the Torah single out Tamei?
(c) Answer: What a question! Clearly it is because if he wishes to bring Pesach Rishon he may not!
(d) Question: Then why does it list b'Derech Rechokah?
(e) Answer: To exempt him from Kares (like R. Nachman).
(f) Question: Is a woman obligated in Pesach Sheni (this Bereisa lists women yet another Bereisa mentions only *men*)?!
(g) Answer: One Bereisa follows R. Yosi; one follows R. Shimon.
(a) [Rebbi] The Chiyuv Kares applies both to the Rishon and Sheni.
(b) [R. Noson] There is Kares for the Rishon, not for the Sheni.
(c) [R. Chananya b. Akavya] There is no Kares for the Rishon unless he does not bring the Sheni.
(d) They are consistent with their views elsewhere:
1. [Rebbi] A Ger or a minor who enter Mitzvos between Rishon and Sheni must bring the Sheni.
2. [R. Nosson] Only one who was obligated in the Rishon brings the Sheni.
(e) Question: What is the basis for their argument?
(f) Answer part 1: Rebbi holds that Sheni is an independent obligation.
(g) Answer part 2: R. Noson holds that Sheni is Tashlumin for the Rishon, but it does not *repair* the omission of the Rishon.
(h) Answer part 3: R. Chananya holds that the second repairs the omission of the first.
(i) All three interpret the Pasuk, "v'ha'Ish..." [first Rebbi]
1. The Pasuk attaches the Kares to the one who did not bring the Rishon.
2. Alternately, the word "Ki" means "If" or "When." If he does not do the Rishon, then there is Kares.
3. The words "Chet'o Yisa" then add Kares for the second.
4. Question: How does Rebbi know that Chet'o Yisa means Kares?
5. Answer: He holds that the Megadef (where Kares is written) is the Blasphemer (where Chet'o is written).
(j) R. Noson interprets the Pasuk:
1. The word "Ki" means "on account of" (there is Kares because he did not bring the Rishon), and there is no Kares for Sheni.
2. Question: What will R. Noson do with Chet'o Yisa?
3. Answer: The Megadef is *not* the Mevarech HaShem, and the Chet'o Yisa connects the Mevarech (where Kares is not written) to Pesach (where Kares is written).
(k) R. Chananya b. Akavya interprets the Pasuk:
1. "Ki" means "if" "He is Chayav Kares *if* he does not bring the Sheni."
2. Question: What does he do with Chet'o Yisa.
3. Answer: He learns like R. Noson.
(a) We understand that if he was Meizid by both Rishon and Sheni he is Chayav, and if he was Shogeg on both he is Patur.
(b) Question: What of Meizid on the Rishon and Shogeg on the Sheni?
(c) Answer: He is Chayav according to Rebbi and R. Noson, and Patur according to R. Chananya b. Akavya.
(d) Question: What of a Shogeg on the Rishon and Meizid on Sheni?
(e) Answer: He is Chayav according to Rebbi, and Patur according to R. Noson and R. Chananya.
(a) [R. Akiva] The distance to be considered Derech Rechokah is a radius between Jerusalem and Modi'in.
(b) [R. Eliezer] From the threshold of the Azarah outward.
(c) [R. Yosi] The dot over the "heh" indicates that we are not speaking of true distance, but from the threshold of the Azarah.
(a) [Ula] The distance to Modi'in is fifteen Milin.
(b) Ula holds like R. Yochanan that a person can walk ten Parsah in a day.
1. From Alos HaShachar to sunrise - five Milin.
2. From sunset to Tzeis - five Milin.
3. Of the remaining 30 Milin, 15 in the AM, and 15 in the PM.
4. Ula defines Derech Rechokah as a distance which would not allow the person to arrive during the Shechitah hours.
(c) Question: What is the source that a person walks five Milin from Alos HaShachar to sunrise?
(d) Answer: Lot departed S'dom at Alos and arrived in Tzoar at Sunrise, a distance reported to be five Milin.
(a) [Ula] Ability to arrive during the time of Shechitah.
(b) [R. Yehudah] Ability to arrive during the time of eating (all night).
(c) [Rabah] There is a question on both opinions:
1. On Ula - The Tamei Sheretz cannot arrive during the Shechitah hours, yet you taught that we Schecht for him!
2. On R. Yehudah - The Tamei Sheretz can arrive during the night yet you taught that we cannot Schecht for him!
(d) There is an answer for both.
1. For Ula - There is no "Derech Rechokah" for a Tamei.
2. For R. Yehudah - The Torah specifically excluded the Tamei Sheretz together with Tamei Mes.
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