POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
by Rabbi Ephraim Becker
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
Ask A Question on the daf
Previous dafPesachim 91
Pesachim 81 - 95: We are grateful to Mr. Mark Frankel of Queens, N.Y. for
suggesting the idea of "Point by Point Summaries" and sponsoring its initial
two weeks -- Tizkeh l'Mitzvos!
1) MISHNA: POTENTIAL EXEMPTIONS FROM THE KORBAN PESACH
(a) It is permitted to Schecht a Korban Pesach for the following:
2) THE PRISONER WHO WAS PROMISED HIS FREEDOM
(b) Others must be joined with them lest they invalidate the Korban.
- An Onen.
- One who is uncovering a person who is buried under rocks.
- A prisoner who was promised that today he would be freed.
- An infirm or elderly person who is able to eat a Kezayis.
(c) If any of these became Pasul, they are Patur from Pesach Sheni.
(d) The one unearthing a buried person (and if the person is found
dead) must bring a Pesach Sheni since he was always Tamei.
(a) The Mishna is speaking of a prisoner in a non-Jewish prison.
3) ONE WHO IS OVERTURNING THE ROCKS OVER A PERSON
(b) If he is in the custody of Jews, we may Schecht for him alone.
(c) Since he was promised his freedom, they will certainly free him.
(d) [R. Chisda] Even in the custody of non-Jews, if the prison is
within Jerusalem, we may Schecht for him alone and (if needed)
send the meat in to him.
(a) He brings a Pesach Sheni only if he *definitely* became Tamei (as
with a round rock covering the mound), not if there is a doubt
(such as with a long stone) and perhaps he was Tahor at the time.
4) MISHNA: THE COMPOSITION OF CHABUROS
(b) The Bereisa supports this qualification.
(a) We do not Schecht a Korban Pesach for one person.
5) SOURCES FOR NOT SCHECHTING FOR AN INDIVIDUAL
(b) [R. Yosi] We may (since he can eat a Kezayis), but if a hundred
people are a Chaburah and they cannot eat a Kezayis, we may not
Schecht for them.
(c) A group must not consist only of women, Avadim and minors.
(a) [R. Yehudah] "B'Echad" teaches that we must not Schecht for one.
(b) [R. Yosi] It only depends on the ability to eat a Kezayis.
(c) Question: What will R. Yosi do with Echad?
(d) Answer: It prohibits bringing a Pesach on an *individual's*
altar, when Bamos are prohibited.
(e) Question: Whence will R. Yehudah learn this law?
(f) Answer: We learn two laws from this Pasuk.
(g) Question [to R. Yosi]: Maybe it teaches R. Yehudah's law?
(h) Answer: The Pasuk "Ish l'fi Ochlo" indicates that we may Schecht
for one person (who is able to eat a Kezayis).
(i) Question: We find that R. Yehudah *does* allow a Pesach (Rishon)
to be Schechted for an individual (the case of the woman).
(j) Answer: It means for *them* (the group of women), not for *her*.
(k) Question: But the Mishna says that a group may not be comprised
only of women?!
(l) Answer: This means combinations of women, Avadim and minors.
1. Women and Avadim to avoid Aveiros.
2. Children and Avadim to avoid Peritzus.
6) WOMEN AS A SEPARATE GROUP
(a) [R. Yehudah] Pesach Rishon can be Schechted for a woman while for
Pesach Sheni there must be others in the group.
(b) [R. Yosi] A woman may be the only one even for Pesach Sheni.
(c) [R. Shimon] A woman may only join others for Pesach Rishon, and
she is not included in Pesach Sheni.
(d) Question: What is their dispute?
(e) Answer part 1: R. Yehudah learns from "Nefashos" that women are
included in Pesach Rishon, and from "Ish" that she must be part
of a group for the Pesach Sheni since it is not mandatory.
1. Question: Then she should be *excluded* from Pesach Sheni?!
(f) Answer part 2: R. Yosi (also) learns from Nefashos for Pesach
Rishon and from Nefesh for Pesach Sheni.
2. Answer: The Sheni has the laws of the Rishon.
1. Question: What will he do with Ish?
(g) Answer part 3: R. Shimon learns Pesach Rishon from "Ish."
2. Answer: It excludes a minor from Kares.
1. Question: Then she should be *excluded* from Pesach Rishon?
(h) Question: What "Ish" is R. Shimon using to exclude Pesach Rishon?
2. Answer: Nefashos allows her to be part of a group.
3. Question: They should then be able to join for Pesach Sheni?
4. Answer: She is excluded from "Ish" (which must mean that she
cannot join, as she is not *obligated* even by Rishon).
1. The Ish by taking a sheep is needed to exclude a minor!
(i) Answer: The Ish from l'fi Ochlo, since Ish is unnecessary there.
2. The "Ish l'fi Ochlo" must be used to teach that we may
Schecht for an individual (R. Shimon must hold like R. Yosi,
since R. Yosi holds like R. Shimon - see Rashi).
(j) Question: Whose opinion does R. Elazar follow?
1. He taught that she is obligated in Rishon, optional in
Sheni, and it overrides Shabbos.
(k) Answer: He holds like R. Yehudah.
2. Question: How can an option override Shabbos?
3. Answer: Rather, he taught that she is optional in Sheni,
obligated in Rishon, and it overrides Shabbos.
(a) A group may not consist entirely of converts.
8) WOMEN AND THE OBLIGATIONS OF MATZAH AND MAROR
(b) They may be excessively stringent and invalidate a kosher Korban.
(a) [Tana Kama] Pesach, Matzah and Maror are obligatory on the first
night and are optional thereafter.
(b) [R. Shimon] It is obligatory for men and optional for women.
(c) Question: What does the Tana Kama refer to as optional
1. Not to the Pesach, since that is not all week.
(d) Answer: All three are not obligatory thereafter [Tana Kama], and
R. Shimon taught that the Korban Pesach is *optional* for women.
2. He cannot refer to Matzah and Maror, since R. Shimon calls
the referent optional and we know that the Torah *obligates*
women (whomever cannot eat Chametz must eat Matzah)!