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Pesachim 121

PESACHIM 120-121 (25-26 Kislev) - the Daf study material for the first day of Chanukah has been dedicated to the memory of Hagaon Rav Yisrael Zev Gustman ZaTZaL (author of "Kuntresei Shiurim"), whose Shiurim lit the eyes of many, by his students.


QUESTION: Rebbi Yishmael in the Mishnah states that the Berachah for eating the Korban Pesach exempts the Korban Chagigah that is also eaten on Pesach night from its Berachah. (According to the Rashbam, the respective Berachos are "le'Echol ha'Pesach" and "le'Echol ha'Zevach." According to the Rambam (Hilchos Chametz u'Matzah 8:7), they are "Al Achilas ha'Pesach" and "Al Achilas ha'Zevach.")

We know that the Chagigah of the Fourteenth is brought on the fourteenth of Nisan and eaten on the first night of Pesach in order that the Korban Pesach be eaten on a full stomach (70a, see Insights there). The Chagigah, therefore, is obviously eaten *before* the Pesach, as the Rambam writes (Hilchos Chametz u'Matzah 8:7). If so, how can the Berachah recited for eating the Korban Pesach fulfill the obligation to recite a Berachah on the Chagigah? The Berachah on the Pesach is recited *after* the Chagigah has been eaten! (TZELACH)


(a) The OR ZARU'A (Hilchos Keri'as Shema #25) asks this question and answers that indeed, even though the Korban Pesach is eaten after the Chagigah, the Berachah on the Pesach still covers the Chagigah that was eaten earlier. The Or Zaru'a proves from here that a person may recite the Berachah for a Mitzvah even *after* he has performed the Mitzvah (in contrast to the view of the Rambam, Hilchos Ishus 3:23).

(b) The KOL BO (Siman 50) writes that it is true that one must eat the Korban Pesach while satiated -- "Al ha'Sova." However, that does not mean that *all* of the Pesach must be eaten at the end of the meal. Rather, only a k'Zayis of the Pesach needs to be eaten at the end of the meal when one is full. This is also evident from the Rambam (Hilchos Chametz u'Matzah 8:7, 9), who writes that one eats the entire Se'udah, eating and drinking whatever he wants, and at the end of his meal he eats a k'Zayis of the Korban Pesach and then he may not eat after that. Thus, one indeed may eat the Korban Pesach first with its Berachah, and then the Chagigah (which was exempted by the Berachah for the Pesach), and at the end he must eat a k'Zayis of the Pesach "Al ha'Sova." The TZELACH comments that according to this approach, the Mishnah is discussing a person who b'Di'eved ate the Korban Pesach before the Chagigah; he is allowed to do so as long as he eats a k'Zayis of Pesach at the end. (The reason why l'Chatchilah one is supposed to eat the Chagigah first is because of the principle of "Tadir u'she'Eino Tadir, Tadir Kodem," and not in order to enable the Pesach to be eaten "Al ha'Sova.")

(c) The CHESHEK SHLOMO and HAGAHOS MAHARSHAM explain that the Mishnah means something entirely different. The Mishnah is not saying that if one eats the Korban Pesach first with a Berachah and then eats the Chagigah, his Berachah for the Pesach covers the Chagigah. Rather, the Mishnah means that a person -- when he was about to eat the Chagigah -- *accidentally* recited the wrong Berachah and said the Berachah for the Pesach instead of the Berachah for the Chagigah. (This fits well with the Girsa that we have in the Mishnah, but not with the Girsa of the Rashbam in the Mishnah.)


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