QUESTION: Rebbi Shimon asserts that the Tzitz is Meratzeh for Tum'ah that
occurs in the Mikdash even when the Kohen Gadol is not wearing it. He proves
this from the fact that the Korbanos of Yom Kippur may be brought b'Tum'ah,
even though the Kohen does not wear the Tzitz during the Avodah of Yom
Kippur. If the Tzitz is not Meratzeh when it is not being worn, then how
could Korbanos be brought b'Tum'ah on Yom Kippur? It must be that the Tzitz
is Meratzeh even when it is not being worn.
RASHI explains that when Rebbi Shimon mentions that the Tzitz is not worn
during the Avodah of Yom Kippur, he is referring to the Avodas Penim, the
Avodah which is done inside the Kodesh ha'Kodoshim. While he performs that
Avodah, he does not wear the usual eight garments that a Kohen Gadol
normally wears (which include the Tzitz), but only four garments. Rashi adds
that the Gemara in Rosh Hashanah (26a) explains that the four other High-
priestly garments are not worn on Yom Kippur because they contain gold, and
when the Kohen Gadol goes into the Kodesh ha'Kodoshim on Yom Kippur, we do
not want the gold in the garments to act as prosecutor against us for the
sin of the golden calf -- "Ein Kateigor Na'aseh Saneigor" ("the prosecutor
cannot become the defense").
REBBI AKIVA EIGER (in Gilyon ha'Shas) points out that this is a very odd way
for Rashi to explain this Gemara. All Rashi had to tell us was that the
Tzitz is not worn on Yom Kippur as we see in the verse in the Torah (Vayikra
16:4) which states that *four* linen garments are worn by the Kohen Gadol on
Yom Kippur. The Gemara in Rosh Hashanah is giving an Agadic reason why only
the four linen garments are worn, but that is not necessary for us to know
in order to understand the Gemara here; the reason *why* the Tzitz may not
be worn during the Avodas Penim is completely irrelevant to our Sugya!
ANSWER: Perhaps we can gain insight into Rashi by a point made by the
MIKDASH DAVID (Kodshim 36:1). The Mikdash David points out that the Gemara
in Zevachim (19b) tells us that the Kohanim, including the Kohen Gadol, wore
the Tefilin Shel Rosh on their heads along with the Bigdei Kehunah. The
Tefilin was not considered a Chatzitzah, an invalid separation between the
Kohen's body and their priestly garments, because it was not worn on a part
of the body where the priestly garments were worn. It was also not
considered Yitur Begadim, wearing extra, unauthorized items of clothing,
which is forbidden. Why was it not considered an extra item of clothing?
TOSFOS there (19a, DH Tefilin) suggests that it is because the Gemara holds
that it is not considered Yitur Begadim when a garment is worn in the place
of Begadim. Alternatively, the Tefilin is not considered a Beged, a garment,
apparently because it is not made of cloth and it is not worn to protect the
body. Rather, it is like a decorative adornment.
The Mikdash David asks that according to this, what is Rebbi Shimon's proof
that the Tzitz is Meratzeh even when it is not worn? Perhaps it is *not*
Meratzeh when it is not worn, but Korbanos may still be brought b'Tum'ah on
Yom Kippur since the since the Tzitz may be worn during the Avodas Penim! If
the Kohen Gadol decides to, there is nothing stopping him from putting on
the Tzitz for the Avodas Penim, because it should be identical to Tefilin,
which are not considered to be Yitur Begadim! Since the Kohen will be
wearing it, it will be Meratzeh!
The Mikdash David answers that the Gemara in Rosh Hashanah teaches that the
Kohen Gadol is *not allowed* to wear the golden vestments when he goes into
the Kodesh Kedoshim, because of "Ein K'teigor Na'aseh S'neigor." This is the
reason why the Kohen Kadol may not wear the Tzitz, even though there is no
problem of Yitur Begadim.
Accordingly, perhaps this is what Rashi is teaching us. Rashi is bothered by
the question, how does Rebbi Shimon know that the Kohen Gadol may not wear
the Tzitz? Granted, he is not obligated to, as the verse says, but perhaps
he is allowed to wear it if he wants and then it will be Meratzeh!
Therefore, Rashi says that not only is the Kohen Gadol not obligated to don
the Tzitz, but he is not allowed to, because of the reason given in the
Gemara in Rosh Hashanah! If so, Rebbi Shimon's assertion that the Tzitz must
be Meratzeh even when it is not being worn is correct. (M. Kornfeld)
Why did Rebbi Akiva Eiger not suggest this answer? Perhaps he found support
for his question in the TORAS KOHANIM (Vayikra 16:4). The verse which lists
the four linen garments that the Kohen Gadol wears on Yom Kippur, says the
word "linen" ("Bod") next to each of the four garments. The Toras Kohanim
derives from these four mentions of the word "linen" that the verse is
coming to exclude four other garments and to say that they are not worn. If
so, Rashi does not have to bring the reason of "Ein Kateigor Na'aseh
Saneigor" to explain why the Kohen may not wear the Tzitz, but the Derashah
in the Toras Kohanim.
However, that is not really a question on Rashi, because the Toras Kohanim
might simply be saying that we might have thought that the other four
garments *must* be worn as well (as it says with regard to those garments,
"Lifnei Hashem Tamid" -- one must wear them before Hashem *always*, Toras
Kohanim ibid.), and therefore the Torah teaches that they do not *have* to
be worn. The only reason why the Tzitz may *not* be worn, though, is because
of "Ein Kateigor Na'aseh Saneigor" as Rashi says.
Alternatively, perhaps Rebbi Akiva Eiger understood that when there is no
obligation to wear a Tzitz, then the Tzitz does not serve to be Meratzeh.
Therefore, even if the Kohen Gadol wears it on Yom Kippur, it will not be
Meratzeh since he has no Chiyuv to wear it.
However, this also might not be correct. Rebbi Yehudah, who argues with
Rebbi Shimon, and holds that the Tzitz is Meratzeh only while the Kohen
Gadol is wearing it, certainly maintains that it is Meratzeh even if the
Kohen Gadol is not performing Avodah at the time. If the Kohen Gadol is not
performing Avodah, he is certainly not *obligated* to wear the Tzitz, and,
according to some, he is not even fulfilling a Mitzvah by wearing it, yet it
is still Meratzeh. We see, then, that even when it is worn without a Chiyuv
to wear it, it is still Meratzeh.