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Pesachim 94

1) [line 9] KERONOS - wagons
2) [line 12] SUMCHA D'REKI'A - the "thickness" of the firmament, through which the sun travels between (i) Alos ha'Shachar (Halachic dawn) and Netz ha'Chamah (sunrise) and (ii) Sheki'as ha'Chamah (sunset) and Tzeis ha'Kochavim (nightfall)

4) [line 27] D'KADMA V'CHASHOCHA - [the time that people travel] before dawn and after Tzeis ha'Kochavim

5) [line 30] KUSH - (a) Ethiopia (JOSEPHUS); (b) Arabia (TARGUM YONASAN Bereishis 10:6); (c) an area in Africa on the upper Nile (HERODOTUS); (d) an area to the east of the Holy Land (YOVLOS)

6) [line 32] EDEN - the region that contains Gan Eden (the garden of Eden) 7) [line 38] AGALAH - (a) the constellation of Ursa Major (the Big Dipper) (TOSFOS 94b DH me'Olam, RABEINU YONASAN MI'LUNIL to Eruvin 56a), a circumpolar constellation near the celestial north pole; (b) *EGLAH* - Taurus, the northernmost of the signs of the zodiac (RASHI)

8) [line 39] V'CHOL HA'YISHUV KULO EINO HOVEH ELA SHA'AH ACHAS BA'YOM - the sun traverses the entire settled area of the earth within one hour (from half an hour before noon until half an hour after noon when the sun is overhead)

9) [last line] "E'ELEH AL BAMASEI AV, EDAMEH L'ELYON" - "I will ascend above the heights of the clouds; I will be like the Most High" (Yeshayahu 14:14)


10) [line 9] "ACH EL SHE'OL TURAD, EL YARKESEI VOR" - "Yet you shall be brought down to She'ol, to the depth of the pit" (Yeshayahu 14:15)

11) [line 10] GALGAL KAVU'A U'MAZALOS CHOZRIN - the heavenly sphere to which the constellations are attached is fixed, and the constellations move upon it. Rashi explains that at this point the Gemara assumes that each constellation that "serves" the sun travels with the sun slightly until it reaches the next constellation, and then returns to its original place. (Since this movement of the Mazal relative to the other Mazalos occurs during the day, it cannot be seen.) The Gemara is assuming that the sun does not have its own sphere to move it, but is moved only via the Mazalos. (The Gemara here is referring only to the movement of the Mazalos *within their sphere*, that is, north and south along their sphere. It is obvious that the sphere of the Mazalos *does* move, though, in an east-west motion relative to the earth, since one sees them crossing the heavens through the night.)

12) [line 11] GALGAL CHOZER U'MAZALOS KEVU'IN - the heavenly sphere to which the constellations are attached moves, and the constellations are fixed. (The Gemara assumes at this point that these constellations are moving the sun along with them, and that it does not have its own sphere [=wheel] to move it.)

*13*) [line 13] LO MATZINU AGALAH BA'DAROM V'AKRAV BA'TZAFON - that is, the sun sometimes follows a more northerly route (summer), and at others a more southerly route (winter), as it moves along from one Mazal to the next, each month. Each Mazal, on the other hand, always follows the same route, and remains in its own part of the heavens. If the sun does not have its own sphere to move it, nor do the Mazalos move the sun along their sphere, then it is presumably attached to one of the Mazalos, and should always remain in that Mazal, whether it be north or south. (Rashi)

14a) [line 14] V'DILMA K'VUTZINA D'REICHAYA IY NAMI K'TZINORA D'DASHA - perhaps the sun is being moved by its own heavenly sphere while the constellations remain fixed in another heavenly sphere. (Both of the metaphors depict a situation where one object revolves around an axis. The axis, in turn, may also be rotated inside the outer object.)
b) [line 15] K'VUTZINA D'REICHAYA - (a) like the iron pivot of the millstone (RASHI); (b) like the hole (socket) of the lower millstone (ARUCH)
c) [line 15] K'TZINORA D'DASHA - like a door in its socket

15) [line 22] B'GOVAH SHEL RAKI'A - further north and higher overhead (see Graphic to Eruvin 56a)

*16*) [line 25] B'ARBA'AH SHEVILIN CHAMAH MEHALECHES - that is, during the four seasons of the year, the sun follows different paths, sometimes rising more directly overhead at noon, and at others remaining closer to the southern horizon. (During spring and fall, the sun actually follows paths that are more or less at the same distance from the horizon, but the Gemara here counts them as two different paths since the seasons are different.)

17) [line 27] L'FASHER - to melt

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