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Pesachim 90

1a) [line 5] KODSHIM KALIM
The term Kodshim Kalim refers to the Korbenos Shelamim, Todah, Ma'aser Behemah, Pesach and Bechor. They may be slaughtered in the entire Azarah (and not only in its northern part) and may be eaten in the entire city of Yerushalayim by men or women (Mishnayos Zevachim 5:6-8).

(a) As soon as a person dedicates any article of his property to Hekdesh, it leaves his possession and enters the possession of Hekdesh. Therefore, the person may no longer sell it or give it as a present as a normal owner would.
(b) However, Rebbi Yosi ha'Gelili rules that this law only applies to Kodshei Kodashim (see Background to Pesachim 82:8b) and to Kodshei Bedek ha'Bayis (objects that are dedicated to Hekdesh *not* as a sacrifice), which are considered Mamon Gavohah (property of Heaven) as soon as they are dedicated. Kodshim Kalim remain the property of their owner in all respects until they are slaughtered, except for the fact that they must be offered on the Mizbe'ach to fulfill his pledge. Therefore, according to Rebbi Yosi ha'Gelili, a person may use Kodshim Kalim to betroth a woman; likewise, he may sell them or give them as a present.

2) [line 19] B'ESNANAH (ESNAN)
An animal given to a harlot for her wage may not be brought as a sacrifice as stated in Devarim 23:19

3) [line 20] MECHIR (MECHIR KELEV)
An animal that had been exchanged for a dog may not be brought as a sacrifice as stated in the same verse.

4) [line 27] HACHAYEIHU MI'SEH - give him sustenance from the lamb
5a) [line 27] MI'CHDEI ACHILAH - for his food
b) [line 27] MI'CHDEI MEKACH - for any purchases
6) [line 35] HACHAYEIHU L'SEH - give the lamb all of its needs, i.e. one may sell shares in his Korban Pesach in order to purchase the requirements for the Mitzvos of the Seder night, e.g. Matzah and Maror

7) [line 40] ZAV
(a) A Zav, a man who emits Zov two or three times (see Background to Shabbos 84:1), whether it is emitted in one day or in two or three consecutive days, is an Av ha'Tum'ah. Zov is a clear discharge with the appearance of the white of a sterile or spoiled egg, in contrast with semen, which has the consistency of fresh egg white. Zov can also be a pus-like discharge resembling the liquid from barley dough or soft barley batter.
(b) A Zav must count seven "clean" days in which he sees no Zov in order to start his purification process, as it states in Vayikra 15:13. On the seventh day or afterwards, he must immerse in a spring. At nightfall he becomes Tahor, if he did not emit Zov again beforehand (ibid.).
(c) If a Zav emits Zov only two times, he does not bring a Korban. If he emitted Zov three times, whether it is emitted in one day or in two or three consecutive days, he has to bring a Korban after he becomes Tahor in order to enter the Beis ha'Mikdash and to eat Korbanos.

(a) The eleven days that follow the seven days of Nidah (see Background to Shabbos 121:5) are "days of Zivah." If a woman experiences bleeding during these days for one or two consecutive days, she becomes a Zavah Ketanah and is Teme'ah.
(b) If she does not experience bleeding the following night and day, she may immerse in a Mikvah to become Tehorah. She may even immerse the morning immediately following her bleeding, but her Tum'ah and Taharah are contingent upon whether or not she sees blood afterwards on that day. She is called a Shomeres Yom k'Neged Yom, because she must *watch* the following day to see whether or not she sees blood.

9) [line 42] ZAVAH
If a woman has a show of blood for three consecutive days during her 11 days of Zivah, she becomes a Zavah Gedolah. In order for her to become Tehorah, she must count seven "clean days" during which she verifies that she has no other show of blood. On the morning of the seventh clean day she immerses in a Mikvah. If she does not experience bleeding during the rest of the day she is Tehorah and no longer a Zavah. A Zavah Gedolah must bring a Korban Zavah to permit her to enter the Beis ha'Mikdash or to eat Kodshim. The Korban is two Torim (turtledoves) or two Benei Yonah (common doves), one offered as an Olah and one as a Chatas.

10) [last line] TEVUL YOM
A Tevul Yom is a person or vessel that has been immersed in a Mikvah but is still waiting for nightfall. The level of Tum'ah of a Tevul Yom is minimal; he or it is considered only a Sheni l'Tum'ah such that if he or it touches Terumah or Kodesh, the Terumah or Kodesh becomes Pasul and must be burned. Chulin that he or it touches do not become Temei'im. At nightfall, he or it becomes completely Tahor.

11) [last line] MECHUSAR KIPURIM
(a) There are three stages in the Taharah (purification) process of a Zav, Zavah, Yoledes, and Metzora: (1) Tevilah (immersing in a Mikvah or Ma'ayan), (2) He'erev Shemesh (nightfall after the Tevilah) and (3) a Korban.
(b) The above Teme'im may not eat Terumah until nightfall after the Tevilah. They may not eat Kodshim until they have brought their Korbanos the following morning. A Tamei who has only immersed is called a Tevul Yom until nightfall. After nightfall he is called a Mechusar Kaparah until he brings his Korban.


We do not perform the Shechitah and Zerikas ha'Dam of the Korban Pesach on behalf of someone who is Tamei Sheretz. Even though he is able to immerse in a Mikvah and become Tahor in the evening when the Pesach is eaten, the verse (Bamidbar 9:10) defers him to Pesach Sheni.

13) [line 5] SHIMSHA MIMEILA ARVA - the sun inevitably goes down
14) [line 7] SHE'KINO B'YADO - he has his Korban of a pair (lit. nest) of birds ready [to be given to the Kohanim to sacrifice]

A Shofar is a box in the shape of a Shofar-horn (wide at the base and thin at the top) for depositing money. Its opening was narrow so that it would be impossible to reach in and steal its contents. There were thirteen Shofaros in the Beis ha'Mikdash, each one for a different purpose. The Shofar of Kinin was used by those who brought money for their *obligatory* birds for atonement, i.e. Zavim, Zavos and Yoldos.

16) [line 39] D'KELISHA TUM'AH - that his Tum'ah is weak (since he is only prohibited to enter the Beis ha'Mikdash and to eat Kodshim)

17) [line 47] NIDAH
(a) By Torah Law, a woman who has her period is a Nidah for seven days. It makes no difference whether she saw blood only one time or for the entire seven days. At the end of seven days, *after nightfall*, she immerses in a Mikvah to become Tehorah.
(b) Although a Nidah is permitted to her husband on the night of the eighth day, she may not eat Terumah and Kodshim, or enter the Beis ha'Mikdash until nightfall of the eighth day.

18) [last line] ONEN (a mourner immediately after a close relative's death)
(a) A person is called an Onen mid'Oraisa on the day of death of one of his seven closest relatives for whom he is required to arrange for burial (i.e. father, mother, brother, sister, son, daughter and wife). Chazal (Zevachim 101a) learn the Halachah of Aninus from the verse, "v'Achalti Chatas ha'Yom, ha'Yitav b'Einei HaSh-m?" (Vayikra 10:19). Among the Halachos that apply to an Onen is that a Kohen Onen is prohibited from doing the Avodah (divine service) in the Beis ha'Mikdash unless he is the Kohen Gadol Vayikra (10:7, 21:1-4). Moreover, an Onen may not eat Kodshim, Terumah and Ma'aser Sheni.
(b) Besides the prohibition against an Onen performing the Avodah, eating Kodshim, etc. *mid'Oraisa*, the Rabanan extended the prohibitions even after Aninus mid'Oraisa has passed. However, the Tana'im and Rishonim argue as to the nature of this Gezeirah. They also argue as to whether Aninus mid'Oraisa always applies for the entire day or for part of the day in certain cases. With regard to these questions, Aninus may be broken into five time periods, as follows:

1. The day of death, before burial - according to all opinions Aninus mid'Oraisa applies, as above.
2. The day of death, after burial - according to Rashi (Pesachim 90b DH ha'Onen, Zevachim 15b DH Onen) only Aninus mid'Rabanan applies. According to the Ramban (Toras ha'Adam) Aninus mid'Oraisa still applies.
3. The night after the day of death (according to Rashi in #2, before burial; according to Ramban in #2, even after burial) - the Tana'im argue if the Aninus is mid'Oraisa or mid'Rabanan (Zevachim 99b). Most of the Rishonim rule that the Aninus is not mid'Oraisa but rather mid'Rabanan.
4. The days after the day of death, even if the body has not been buried - Aninus only applies mid'Rabanan (Zevachim 100b) until the end of the day of burial. Also on the day of "Likut Atzamos" (when the remains of one of the close relatives are exhumed and re-buried elsewhere), the Rabanan decreed that the person is an Onen for that entire day.
5. The night after the day of burial - the Tana'im (Zevachim 100b) argue whether the person is an Onen mid'Rabanan or not at all, and the Halachah follows the opinion that he is not an Onen at all.
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