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Pesachim 87

*****PEREK #8 HA'ISHAH*****

1) [line 3] HALCHAH REGEL RISHON - (a) when she went for the first festival after her wedding (RASHI); (b) the first time she went for a festival after her wedding (the beginning of TOSFOS DH Kan)

2) [line 5] YASOM - an orphan who is less than thirteen years old (YERUSAHLMI, RAMBAM Korban Pesach 2:11

3) [line 6] APOTROPSIN - legal guardians
4) [line 9] YESH BEREIRAH
(a) In numerous places in Shas we find arguments among the Tana'im/Amora'im as to whether "Yesh Bereirah" (i.e. Bereirah works) or "Ein Bereirah" (i.e. Bereirah doesn't work). Bereirah means making one's action contingent retroactively on future events. Examples of this are: selling an object on the condition that it rains tomorrow; buying or selling *today* an object that will be selected tomorrow. In the initial assumption of our Gemara, a person has had two Korbenos Pesach slaughtered for him and he may determine retroactively which Korban he intended to be appointed to (Manuy). "Ein Bereirah" means that such a stipulation does not work. An action cannot be contingent on a future event. The Ran (Nedarim 45b) explains the logic of this rule by saying, "It is not proper for something to take effect, when there remains a doubt on *what* it will take effect." (See Insights to Chulin 15:2.) "Yesh Bereirah" means that such a stipulation does work.
(b) When the action is contingent on a *past* event, there is no question that the action works -- even if the people involved in the action are not aware as to whether the past event did or did not take place. Example: If a person makes two Eruvei Techumin before sundown on Erev Shabbos, in two different directions, and stipulates "if my Rebbi is *presently* staying in a village towards the East, I would like the Eastern Eruv to work, if not, I would like the Western Eruv to work." The man making the Eruv may not know where his Rebbi is, but when he finds out, the Eruv will have taken effect on the side that he stipulated.
(c) We find dozens of instances in the Gemara where a person may perform an action "on the condition that..." (b'Tenai). For example, a man may buy or sell an object or divorce his wife on the condition that the other party pays or does whatever the first party specifies. If the condition is not kept *in the future*, the sale or divorce is annulled. This situation is not called Bereirah -- see Insights to Eruvin 36b.
(d) Halachically, most Poskim conclude (based on Beitzah 38a) that regarding biblical questions (mid'Oraisa), we assume that Bereirah does not work (l'Chumrah), but in regards to Rabbinical questions (mid'Rabanan), we rely on Bereirah.

5) [line 13] REDUFAH LEILECH - anxious to go (a) [to complain] (RASHI); (b) [to share the good news] (RAMBAM, TOSFOS)

6a) [line 14] "[ANI CHOMAH V'SHADAI KA'MIGDALOS;] AZ HAYISI V'EINAV K'MOTZ'EIS SHALOM" - "[I am a wall and my breasts are like towers;] then (therefore) I am in His eyes like one who found peace (like a bride who was found perfect in her father-in-law's house)." (Shir ha'Shirim 8:10)
b) [line 15] SHE'NIMTZEIS SHELEIMAH - who was found perfect

*7*) [line 16] U'REDUFAH LEILECH L'HAGID SHIVCHAH - (According to Rashi, this is a description of the Kalah that is *not* Redufah in the Mishnah.)

8) [line 18] ISHI/BA'ALI - (a) my husband after Nisu'in/my husband after Kidushin (MAHARSHAL, RASHI to Kesuvos 71b); (b) my bridegroom/my master or provider (RASHI to Hoshea 2:18)

*9*) [line 20] ACHOS LANU KETANAH - (This is mentioned here because it is another Derash of *Rebbi Yochanan*, on the same chapter in *Shir ha'Shirim* as a verse he cited earlier on the Daf. Afterwards, the Gemara continues to discuss verses that seem to deal with the beauty of maidens, but actually are referring to Yir'as Shamayim -- see Rashi DH b'Yemei.)

10) [line 21] EILAM - Media (Bereishis Rabah 42:7)

11) [line 27] "ASHER BANENU KI'NTI'IM MEGUDALIM BI'N'UREIHEM; BENOSEINI CH'ZAVIYOS MECHUTAVOS TAVNIS HEICHAL" - "For our sons are like saplings nurtured from their youth; our daughters are like cornerstones crafted in palatial form." (Tehilim 144:12)

12) [line 31] SHE'OGDOS PISCHEIHEN L'VA'ALEIHEN - (a) they are faithful to their husbands (lit. they keep themselves tied up, closed [to others]); (b) Alternate Derashah in RASHI (see Eruvin 21b), SHE'MAGIDOS PISCHEIHEN L'VA'ALEIHEN - they tell their husbands when they see Dam Nidah

13) [line 32] "... U'MAL'U KA'MIZRAK K'ZAVIYOS MIZBE'ACH" - "... and they shall be filled like bowls, and like the corners of the Mizbe'ach." (Zecharyah 9:15) - Rashi explains that even though the Jewish wives become filled with passion, they do not consider adultery; rather, they remain faithful to their husbands.

14) [line 33] "MEZAVEINU MELE'IM, MEFIKIM MI'ZAN EL ZAN; TZONENU MA'ALIFOS MERUBAVOS B'CHUTZOSEINU" - "Our storehouses overflow to their very corners (lit. our corners are full), providing [produce] from harvest to harvest; our sheep increase by the thousands, by the myriads in our open spaces." (Tehilim 144:13) - The metaphor of Mezaveinu (our storehouses) depicts a hollow object that may be filled, as in the previous entry (MAHARSHA).

*15*) [line 36] "DEVAR HASH-M ASHER HAYAH EL HOSHE'A BEN BE'ERI; BIMEI UZIYAH YOSAM ACHAZ YECHITZKIYAH MALCHEI YEHUDAH U'VIMEI YARAVAM BEN YOASH MELECH YISRAEL" (Hoshea 1:1) - (This is cited here because it is again *Rebbi Yochanan* who provides the Derash on a verse from *Hoshe'a* -- see also Rashi DH b'Yemei for an added reason.)

16) [line 42] BENEI CHANUNECHA HEM - the sons whom you [constantly] grace
17) [last line] "VA'YELECH VA'YIKACH ES GOMER BAS DIVLAYIM" - "So he went and took Gomer the daughter of Divlayim." (Hoshea 1:3)


18) [line 1] DIBAH RA'AH - of ill repute
19) [line 2] KI'DEVEILAH - like a fig
20) [line 4] SHE'BIKSHU L'GAMER MAMONAN SHEL YISRAEL - they tried to destroy the possessions of Benei Yisrael

21) [line 7] "... VA'TAHAR VA'TELED LO BEN. VA'YOMER HASH-M ELAV, KERA SHEMO YIZRE'EL KI OD ME'AT U'FAKAD'IT ES DEMEI YIZRE'EL AL BEIS YEHU V'HISHBATI MI'MALCHUS BEIS YISRA'EL" - "... and she conceived, and bore him a son. And HaSh-m said to him, 'Call his name Yizre'el, for in a little while I will visit the blood of Yizre'el upon the house of Yehu, and will bring the kingdom of the house of Yisrael to an end.'" (Hoshea 1:3-4) - Yehu was instructed to kill the house of King Achav, since they caused Benei Yisrael to serve the Avodah Zarah of Ba'al. When Yehu's descendants themselves proceeded to serve the Ba'al, the murder of Achav and his household was considered as if Yehu took the lives of the innocent.

22) [line 10] "... KI NASO ESA LAHEM" - "... to forgive them [at all]." (Hoshea 1:6)

23) [line 16] BENEI BECHUNAI - the sons of my tested ones (my tried servants)

24) [line 18] "HASH-M KANANI REISHIS DARKO; KEDEM MIF'ALAV ME'AZ" - "HaSh-m created me (lit. bought me) as the beginning of His way, the first of His works of old." (Mishlei 8:22)

25) [line 28] KIPE'ACH - buried; i.e. outlived
26) [line 33] "VA'YISHLACH AMATZYAH KOHEN BEIS EL EL YARAV'AM MELECH YISRAEL LEIMOR KASHAR ALECHA AMOS B'KEREV BEIS YISRAEL LO SUCHAL HA'ARETZ L'HACHIL ES KOL DEVARAV." "Then Amatzyah the priest of Beis El sent to Yarav'am king of Yisrael saying, 'Amos has conspired against you in the midst of the house of Yisrael; the land is not able to bear all of his words.'" (Amos 7:10)

27) [line 33] "KI CHO AMAR AMOS BA'CHEREV YAMUS YARAV'AM V'YISRAEL GALO YIGLEH ME'AL ADMASO." - "'For Amos said, "Yarav'am shall die by the sword, and Yisrael shll be led away into exile out of their own land."'" (Amos 7:11)

28) [line 41] "[MI'KOL MECHATZETZIM BEIN MASH'ABIM, SHAM YESANU TZIDKOS HASH-M,] TZIDKOS PIRZONO B'YISRAEL, [AZ YARDU LASHE'ARIM AM HASH-M.]" - "[Louder that the voice of the archers, in the places of drawing water, there let them recite the righteous acts of HaSh-m,] the righteous acts toward the inhabitants of His villages in Yisrael, [when the people of HaSh- m went down o the gates.]" (Shoftim 5:11) - By rearranging the letters of the word Pirzono, the Gemara interprets that this verse suggests that Benei Yisrael will be spread (Mefuzarim) among the nations.

29) [line 42] ISINCHU GABAN - you live among us
30) [line 44] TECHALINAN KULHU - if you [intend to] destroy all of them (the Jewish people)
31) [line 44] MALCHUSA KETI'ASA - the murderous kingdom
32) [line 45] GAPA D'ROMA'EI - by the Gapa (the name of an Avodah Zarah) of the Romans!
33) [line 45] B'HA NACHTINAN UV'HA SALKINAN - (lit. with this on our mind we go down and up) we are constantly mulling over this matter

34) [line 50] L'MAT'ASAN - to their garden where they were planted; i.e. to

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