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Pesachim 72

1) [line 2] AKIRAH B'TA'US HAVYA AKIRAH (Offering one type of Korban as another type, due to a mistake in the identification of the Korban)
(a) If one of the four Avodos (see Background to Pesachim 59:16) of a Korban Pesach or Chatas are performed she'Lo Lishmo, these Korbanos are Pasul, since the owner "uprooted" (Akar) the original "name" or designation of the Korban. All other Korbanos that are offered she'Lo Lishmo are Kosher and may be offered on the Mizbe'ach. However, if a person was obligated to bring a particular Korban and it was brought she'Lo Lishmo, he must bring another sacrifice in its stead to fulfill the obligation.
(b) The above applies only if the Pesach was slaughtered she'Lo Lishmo *during the afternoon of Erev Pesach*, which is the time during which the Korban Pesach may be slaughtered. A Korban Pesach which was *not* slaughtered during that time but rather after that time ("Mosar ha'Pesach") has most of the laws of a Korban Shelamim, and consequently if it is slaughtered she'Lo Lishmo (e.g. as a Shelamim or another Korban) it is Kosher.
(c) The law mentioned in the previous paragraph, that a Korban Pesach offered after Pesach is like a Shelamim, has one qualification. There is an opinion that after Pesach the Korban Pesach needs an Akiras Shem in order to be considered like a Shelamim (even though it will certainly no longer be brought as a Pesach -- Pesachim 64a, according to TOSFOS 60b DH b'She'ar). That is, the person who brings the Korban must *declare* that this animal has ceased to be a Korban Pesach. According to the opinion that an Akiras Shem is needed, if the animal is slaughtered at a time other than Erev Pesach *without* Akirah, it is still considered a full-fledged Pesach and is Pasul since it was not slaughtered during its proper time (see Pesachim 60b). Slaughtering the animal she'Lo Lishmo (e.g. slaughtering it for the sake of offering a Shelamim or Olah), however, qualifies as an Akirah and makes the animal into a Shelamim.
(d) The law of Akiras Shem applies when the owner uproots the name of the Korban intentionally. For example, if a person declares that he will bring an animal that he designated as a Pesach or an Olah as a Shelamim. If, however, he mistakenly thought that this animal was a Shelamim, and he brought it as a Shelamim, the Amora'im argue (Menachos 49b) as to whether the original name was uprooted from the Korban and it is considered a Korban that was offered she'Lo Lishmo or not. According to the opinion that "Akirah b'Ta'us Havya Akirah," this Korban also is also subjected to the laws mentioned above. According to the opinion that "Lo Havya Akirah," the Korban is completely Kosher as if it was offered Lishmo, and the original name has not been uprooted.

3) [line 10] B'UCHLUSA D'INSHEI - amidst a large group of people
4a) [line 11] TANA MINEI ARBE'IN ZIMNIN - he learned it from him 40 times
b) [line 12] V'DAMI LEI K'MAN D'MUNACH B'CHISEI - and he remembered it very well, as if it was placed in his pocket

5) [line ] ME'AVEL ARAV - from the city "Avel" which is located in the region of Arav (a name for once used Ever ha'Yarden). According to the Tevu'os ha'Aretz, this was Tel-Abila (near the present day Irbid, second largest city in Jordan), in the area of Gader, south of the Yarmoch River. The city of Abila was known for its wine production, as is evidenced by the city's ancient coinage which boasted a cluster of grapes on one face of its coins.


*6*) [line 1] V'SEIFA, NITNAH SHABBOS LIDACHOS ETZLO - that is, even though there is *no longer* any Mitzvah that must be performed today, since there *was* a Mitzvah that had to be performed, it is considered "Ta'ah b'Devar Mitzvah." For the same reason, if a person slaughtered an animal on Shabbos thinking that it was the Tamid, even if the Tamid was *already* slaughtered, he is "Ta'ah b'Devar Mitzvah" according to Rebbi Meir. (That is, there is no contradiction between the ruling of Rebbi Meir with regard to the Tamid, and his ruling with regard to the babies.)

7) [line 28] A'KIL'A - (O.F. porje) porch
8) [line 29] SHEPUD - a spit of meat
9) [line 32] L'SHIYULEI - to ask her if she was a Nidah
10) [line 34] SIMCHAS ONAH - the pleasure of marital relations
11) [line 35] SAMUCH L'VESTAH - Rebbi Yochanan is referring to the day or night that is adjacent to the time that she regularly has her period

12) [line 35] BAZIZ MINAH - he is embarrassed to ask her
*13*) [line 35] YEVIMTO, BAZIZ MINAH - that is, he did not know that it was close to the day that the woman usually had her period. With regard to his wife, it is incumbent on the man to ask her if her period is near, and if he did not do so he cannot be considered "Ta'ah" b'Devar Mitzvah; he is merely Shogeg and not Ta'ah. On the other hand, with regard to his Yevamah, since it is normal to be embarrassed to ask her about her period, he is not expected to ask her about it, and he is considered "Ta'ah" b'Devar Mitzvah if it turns out that her period was indeed close, and she became a Nidah. (TOSFOS DH Samuch)

14) [line 38] ZEMANO BAHUL - [he is in a rush since] his time is limited

15) [line 41] BEN GERUSHAH
A child born from the marriage of a Kohen to a woman who is prohibited to the priesthood is not fit to be a Kohen. This is learned from the Pasuk, "Lo Yechalel Zar'o b'Amav," ("He shall not profane his seed among his people") (Vayikra 21:15). A Kohen is forbidden to marry a divorcee by Torah Law. The Chachamim decreed that a Kohen may not marry a Chalutzah.

16) [line 46] "[YASIMU KETORAH B'APECHA, V'CHALIL AL MIZBECHECHA.] BARECH HASH-M CHEILO, U'OF'AL YADAV TIRTZEH" - "[They shall place incense in Your presence and cause sacrifices to be consumed on Your altar.] HaSh-m, bless his effort (brigade, wealth, spirit) and favor the work of his hands." (Devarim 33:10-11) - Rebbi Yehoshua takes the word "Cheilo" as a hint to the profaned descendants of the Kehunah (Chalalim).

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