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Pesachim 59

1) [line 1] YE'UCHAR - postpone
2) [line 7] "... ME'EREV AD BOKER" - "[... Aharon and his sons shall arrange for the lamps to burn] from evening to morning [before HaSh-m ...]" (Shemos 27:21)

3) [line 13] V'TANYA KI KUSHYAN - there is a Beraisa that agrees with the Gemara's question (that the incense and lamps should precede the Pesach sacrifice)

4) [line 24] B'IDAN - at the time

(a) There are three stages in the Taharah (purification) process of a Zav, Zavah, Yoledes, and Metzora: (1) Tevilah (immersing in a Mikvah or Ma'ayan); (2) He'erev Shemesh (nightfall after the Tevilah); (3) a Korban.
(b) The above Teme'im may not eat Terumah until nightfall after the Tevilah. They may not eat Kodshim until they have brought their Korbanos the following morning. A Tamei who has only immersed is called a Tevul Yom until nightfall. After nightfall he is called a Mechusar Kaparah until he brings his Korban.
(c) A Mechusar Kaparah who forgot to offer his Korban on Erev Pesach is allowed to offer it after the Korban ha'Tamid Shel Bein ha'Arbayim so that he will be able to eat the Korban Pesach that night.


(a) The offering of the Chatas ha'Of consists of three procedures:
1. MELIKAH - Standing on the floor of the Azarah near the southwestern corner of the Mizbe'ach, the Kohen cuts the back of the neck of the bird with his right thumbnail. He makes sure to cut one Siman (either the trachea or the esophagus), but not to sever the entire neck of the bird.
2. HAZAYAH - The Kohen sprinkles its blood on the Mizbe'ach (directly from the neck of the bird), below the Chut ha'Sikra (red line) that is located halfway up the Mizbe'ach.
3. MITZUY - The Kohen presses the cut neck of the bird to the Mizbe'ach and squeezes its remaining blood onto the Mizbe'ach.
(b) The Chatas ha'Of is eaten by the Kohanim. No part of it was burned on the Mizbe'ach.

(a) The offering of the Chatas Behemah consists of five procedures:

1. SHECHITAH - Standing on the floor of the Azarah north of the Mizbe'ach, the Kohen slaughters the animal, making sure to cut two Simanim (the trachea and the esophagus).
2. KABALAS HA'DAM - A Kohen catches the life-blood of the animal in a utensil. The Eimurim (the fats and other parts of the Korban that are burned on the Mizbe'ach) are removed from the animal.
3. HOLACHAH - The Kohen walks with the blood up to the top of the Mizbe'ach.
4. NESINAS HA'DAM - The Kohen smears the blood with his finger on each of the four Keranos of the Mizbe'ach.
5. HAKTARAS HA'EIMURIM - The Eimurim are cast into the fire on the Mizbe'ach.
(b) The rest of the Chatas Behemah is eaten by the Kohanim.

7) [line 43] U'MELINAH B'ROSHO SHEL MIZBE'ACH - [the Kohen performed all of the procedures in offering the Chatas Behemah *except* for the burning of the Eimurim, and] left them at the top of the Mizbe'ach (where leaving them there overnight does not invalidate them)


*8) [line 1] "V'HE'ELAH HA'KOHEN ..." - "And the Kohen shall offer the Olah and the Minchah upon the Mizbe'ach. And the Kohen shall make atonement for him, and he shall be Tahor." (Vayikra 14:20) - Rashi states that since the verse is describing a future event, the word Ya'aleh is preferable to He'elah. The unusual wording suggests that even if the Olah was offered before the Chatas, the Metzorah would achieve Kaparah.

9) [line 6] KOHANIM ZERIZIN HEN - the Kohanim are very meticulous and can be relied upon to perform the Divine service with the utmost care.

10) [line 8] KAMAH D'LO MISKATRI EMURIN - as long as the Emurin have not been [placed on the Mizbe'ach to be] burned

11) [line 10] CHAZEH VA'SHOK
The chest and the hind leg of the Shelamim (peace offering) were waved in a prescribed manner and were then given as a gift to the Kohanim, as described in Vayikra (7:28-36).

12) [line 14] "V'ACHLU OSAM ASHER KUPAR BAHEM" - "(Vayikra 14:20)
13) [line 25] KESHE'NITOSRU - when they were left over (unoffered)
14) [line 32] CHELVEI SHABBOS - the fats of [the Korban Pesach that was offered on] Shabbos

15) [line 36] SHAVKEI LI'KERA D'IHU DACHIK U'MUKIM A'NAFSHEI - leave aside the literal meaning of the verse, because it is written in a forced matter, and it must be interpreted based on its Halachic context

16) [line 37] SHE'SHACHTO (4 AVODOS)
Offering a Korban is comprised of four main actions. These four "Avodos" are Shechitah (slaughtering), Kabalas ha'Dam (collecting the blood of the Korban that will be thrown on the Mizbe'ach), Holachah (carrying the blood towards the Mizbe'ach) and Zerikah (throwing the blood on the Mizbe'ach).

(a) If a Korban Pesach or Chatas is sacrificed Shelo Lishmah, they are Posul. All other sacrifices are kosher and may be offered on the Mizbe'ach. However, if a person made a vow to bring a particular Korban and it was brought She'lo li'Shemo, he must bring another sacrifice in their stead to fulfill the vow.
(b) The above applies only if the Pesach was slaughtered she'Lo li'Shemo *during the afternoon of Erev Pesach*, which is the time during which the Korban Pesach may be slaughtered. A Korban Pesach which was *not* slaughtered during that time but rather after or before that time ("Mosar ha'Pesach" or "Hifrisho l'Pesach") has most of the laws of a Korban Shelamim, and consequently if it is slaughtered she'Lo li'Shemo (e.g. as a Shelamim) it is kosher.
(c) The law mentioned in the previous paragraph, that a Korban Pesach before or after Pesach is like a Shelamim, has one catch. In order for a Korban Pesach to become like a Shelamim before Pesach, it must have an "Akiras Shem" (it must be declared to be no longer a Pesach by an act of the owner). Some say that in order to become like a Shelamim *after* Pesach as well (even though it will certainly no longer be brought as a Pesach), the Pesach needs an Akirah (TOSFOS 60b DH b'She'ar). The act of slaughtering the animal she'Lo l'Shema (e.g. slaughtering it for the sake of offering a Shelamim or Olah), however, qualifies as an Akirah and makes the animal into a Shelamim. If the animal is slaughtered at a time other than Erev Pesach *without* Akirah, it is still considered a full-fledged Pesach and is Pasul since it was not slaughtered during its proper time (see Pesachim 60b).

19) [line 44] AF BI'GEMAR DEVARAV ADAM NITPAS/TEFOS LASHON RISHON TEFOS LASHON RISHON - "The first statement is the only one that we regard seriously." That is, if a person says two consecutive statements that have contradictory Halachic ramifications, yet he expresses no desire to rescind the first of the two, we assume that he decided to add the second statement only *after* having pronounced the first. Therefore, the first statement remains valid, and the second one is ignored.

The dissenting opinion holds that "Af bi'Gmar Dvarav Adam Nitfas," i.e. the person originally *intended* to make *both* statements, thinking that they weren't Halachically contradictory. According to this opinion, both statements are valid and we find some compromise between the two.

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