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Pesachim 58


1) [line 1] TAMID (KORBAN TAMID)
The Korban Tamid consists of two male sheep that were less than one year old. One sheep was offered in the morning and the second sheep was offered in the afternoon. One tenth of an Eifah (approx. two quarts) of flour was brought with each sheep as a Minchah (meal offering), which was mixed with one quarter of a Hin (approx. one quart) of hand pressed olive oil. One quarter of a Hin of wine for each sheep was brought as a wine libation. (Bamidbar 28:5).

2) [line 15] MISHE'YINATU TZELALEI EREV - from when the afternoon shadows begin to form (lit. incline); i.e. from half-an-hour after midday

3) [line 19] "[VEHA'ESH AL HE'MIZBE'ACH TUKAD BO, LO SICHBEH, U'VI'ER ALEHA HA'KOHEN ETZIM BA'BOKER BA'BOKER; V'ARACH ALEHA HA'OLAH, VHIKTIR] ALEHA CHELVEI HA'SHELAMIM" - "[The fire of the altar shall be ignited on it (with the remains of the offerings) and shall not be extinguished, and the priest shall kindle wood on it each morning; on [this wood] he shall then arrange burnt offerings and burn] on it the choice parts of the peace offerings." (Vayikra 6:5)

4) [line 20] ALEHA HASHLEM KOL HA'KORBANOS KULAM - complete all the Korbanos of the day after the offering of the Korban Tamid of the morning. The blood of the afternoon Tamid was the last to be sprinkled on the Mizbe'ach except for the blood of the Korban Pesach (and possibly the Korban Pesach Sheni - TOSFOS to Yoma 29a DH Ela, TOSFOS to Menachos 49a DH Talmud Lomar)

5) [line 35] BAZICHIN
(a) The Lechem ha'Panim (Showbread) is an offering of 12 loaves (that are Matzah) that are arranged in two stacks (Sedarim), six loaves to each stack, on the Golden Table of the Mishkan or Beis ha'Mikdash. Fresh loaves were arranged on the Table every Shabbos and are left there until the following Shabbos. The Kohanim eat the loaves that are removed (Vayikra 24:5-9).
(b) A Kometz (the amount that will fit under the middle three fingers when they are pressed upon the palm) of Levonah (frankincense) is placed alongside each stack in a Bazach (bowl). The Levonah is offered on the Mizbe'ach. The offering of the Levonah permits the loaves to be eaten.

6) [line 43] MICHMAR BISRA - heating up (spoiling) of the meat of the Korban (that is to be eaten at night)


*7*) [line 22] K'SIDRO B'EREV HA'PESACH - (According to Abaye, this means that if Erev Pesach is Shabbos the Tamid is brought the same time of day as when Erev Pesach is Erev Shabbos. According to Raba bar Ula, Rebbi Akiva is arguing with the *first* statement of Rebbi Yishmael, and saying that the on a normal Shabbos the Tamid is brought the same time it is brought on a normal Erev Pesach, and not the same time it is brought during the week -- TOSFOS DH Ela)

8) [last line] KETORES
(a) The Ketores is the incense that was offered on the golden Mizbe'ach in the Heichal of the Beis ha'Mikdash. It was offered twice each day, in the morning when the Kohen cleaned out the lamps of the Menorah, and before evening when the Kohen lit the Menorah. It consisted of the following eleven ingredients:

1. 70 Maneh (350 pounds) of TZARI ("Seraf ha'notef me'Atzei ha'Ketaf") - sap of the balsam tree
2. 70 Maneh (350 pounds) of TZIPOREN ("Shecheles") - a kind of root/annual plant. Some identify this plant with a species of rock-rose, Cistus ladaniferus, which has fingernail-like petals. Alternatively, Tziporen may be onycha, a type of flower.
3. 70 Maneh (350 pounds) of CHELBENAH - (a) galbanum; a yellow-brown gum resin obtained from a plant in Persia; (b) According to some, Chelbenah is the gum of the common storax tree
4. 70 Maneh (350 pounds) of LEVONAH - frankincense or oliban; a gum resin from trees of Arabia and India. The gum is yellowish and semi-transparent, with a bitter nauseous taste. It is hard and capable of being pulverized, producing a strong aromatic odor when burned
5. 16 Maneh (80 pounds) of MOR - myrrh
6. 16 Maneh (80 pounds) KETZI'AH - cassia
7. 16 Maneh (80 pounds) SHIBOLES NERD - spikenard
8. 16 Maneh (80 pounds) KARKOM - saffron
9. 12 Maneh (60 pounds) KOSHT - costus
10. 3 Maneh (15 pounds) KILUFAH - cinnamon bark
11. 9 Maneh (45 pounds) KINAMON - cinnamon
(b) In addition the following ingredients were added to make it burn well:
1. 1 Kav (9 quarts) of BORIS KARSHINAH - vetch lye
2. 3 Se'ah and 3 Kavim (21 quarts) of YEIN KAFRISIN - (a) the fermented juice of the caper-berry; (b) alt., wine made from grapes that grow in Cyprus. If Yein Kafrisin was not available the Ketores was compounded instead with CHAMAR CHIVARYAN ATIK - very-old strong white wine
3. One quarter Kav (1 cup) of MELACH SEDOMIS - Sodomite salt
4. A small amount of MA'ALEH ASHAN - probably Leptadenia Pyrotechnica, which contains nitric acid, causing the smoke to rise straight up
(c) Rebbi Nasan ha'Bavli says that a small amount of Kipas ha'Yarden, probably cyclamen, was also added.

9) [last line] NEROS
(a) Every evening a Kohen lights the Menorah in the Beis ha'Mikdash. This is called Hadlakas ha'Neros. One half of a Log of olive oil, enough for the long winter nights, is put into the lamps of the Menorah to burn until the morning.
(b) In the morning, a Kohen cleaned out the burned wicks and leftover oil that remained in the lamps, and replaced them with fresh oil and wicks. The Torah and the Mishnah call this Hatavas ha'Neros, or Dishun ha'Menorah. The used wicks were placed in the same pile of ashes near the ramp of the Mizbe'ach into which the Terumas ha'Deshen was placed.
(c) The cleaning of the lamps was done in two stages. First the Kohen cleaned five of the lamps of the Menorah, then he would wait while other services of the Mikdash were done, and only afterwards would he complete the job and clean out the remaining two lamps of the Menorah.
(d) The above is based upon the opinion of the majority of the Rishonim. However, others assert that some or all of the lamps of the Menorah were lit in the morning as well, or that the Menorah was cleaned in a single step according to some Tana'im. Also, the process we have described is altered slightly if some of the lamps are still burning in the morning.
(e) The Tana'im argue as to which service was done between the cleaning of the first five and the last two lamps. For more information, see Chart #2.

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