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Pesachim 56

PESACHIM 56 - (21 Tishrei) has been dedicated by Gedalliah Jawitz in honor of the Yahrzeit of Yehuda ben Simcha Volf Jawitz.

1) [line 1] OCHLIN TACHAS HA'NESHARIM - on Shabbos and Yom Tov they ate beneath date palms from which dates fell, without knowing whether the dates had fallen on Shabbos or Yom Tov or if they had fallen beforehand (RASHI). The Gemara (56b) explains that a Rabbinical decree was made against eating such fruit lest a person actually come to pick fruits off of a tree.

2) [line 1] PE'AH
(a) The corner, or end, of the harvest of grain must be left in the field for the poor, as it states "Lo Sechaleh Pe'as Sadecha Liktzor...le'Ani vela'Ger Ta'azov Osam." - "Do not completely harvest the corner of your field...you shall leave them (the gifts of Pe'ah, Leket, Olelos and Peret) for the poor and the stranger." (Vayikra 19:9-10).
(b) The requirement to leave Pe'ah for the poor applies to trees as well, as Chazal learn from the verse "Ki Sachbot Zeisecha, Lo Sefa'er Acharecha; la'Ger, la'Yasom vela'Almanah Yiheyeh." - "When you beat your olive trees to shake off the fruit, do not remove all of its splendor; it (that amount that you leave as Pe'ah -- Chulin 131b) shall be for the convert, the orphan and the widow." (Devarim 24:20). Pe'ah does not apply to vegetables, as is explained below in the Gemara (56b).

3) [line 5] KITES - ground to powder
4) [line 5] NECHASH HA'NECHOSHES - While in the desert, Benei Yisrael spoke out against HaSh-m and Moshe, "Why did you take us out of Egypt to die in the desert? There is no bread and no water! We are getting disgusted with this insubstantial food (the Man)." As a punishment, HaSh-m sent poisonous snakes to attack the people, causing a number of Benei Yisrael to die. The people came to Moshe and confessed their sin and asked him to pray for them. Moshe was instructed to make a copper venomous snake and put it on a pole. When people looked up at the snake, they would raise their eyes heavenward, repent and be cured (Bamidbar 21:4-9). Many years after entering Eretz Yisrael, Benei Yisrael began to worship the copper snake, calling it "Nechushtan." Chizkiyahu ha'Melech destroyed it to prevent this from continuing (Melachim II 18:4).

5) [line 5] SEFER REFU'OS - (a) a book that listed the remedies for all illnesses. By hiding it, Chizkiyahu was effectively forcing the Jews to rely on HaSh-m for their healing and to pray for mercy from Him, instead of relying on the Sefer Refu'os. (RASHI); (b) a collection of astrological formulae for healing, accomplished by placing certain forms in certain places at certain hours. It is permitted to learn from such a book, but not to use it in practice, because of Avodah Zarah. When Chizkiyahu saw that people were using it in practice, he hid it away. (The Rambam refers to this type of healing by its Greek name, "Talisman.") King Shlomo wrote the Book of Cures in order to show the wonders that exist in the natural world, but he did not intend that it should actually be used. (RAMBAM, Peirush ha'Mishnayos); (c) a book that listed poisons and the antidotes to those poisons. The purpose of the book was to supply antidotes for the various poisons. When people began using the book in order to know what poisons to use upon their enemies, Chizkiyahu hid it away. (RAMBAM ibid.)

6a) [line 7] IBER NISAN B'NISAN - after Nisan had begun, he proclaimed a leap year, retroactively changing Nisan into Adar Sheni

(a) A Shanah Me'uberes (a leap year) is one in which an extra month is added. The only month that is ever added is Adar, such that in a Shanah Me'uberes there are two months of Adar. The reason for adding the extra month is in order to be certain that Pesach falls in the season of Aviv (spring), as it states in the verse, "Shamor Es Chodesh ha'Aviv, v'Asisa Pesach..." - "Observe the month of Aviv, and do the Pesach Sacrifice..." (Devarim 16:1).
(b) A Beis Din of the Chachamim decides whether there is a need for a Shanah Me'uberes based upon three signs: the spring equinox; the spring season in the districts of Yehudah, Ever ha'Yarden and Galil; the ripening of fruits. 1. If, according to the calculation of the Chachamim, the spring equinox will fall on the 16th of Nisan or later, the extra month is added. The month that would have been Nisan is called Adar Sheni. 2, 3. These two signs are interrelated. If the Chachamim decide that the spring season has not come; the days are still short and dark and the fruits that are normally ripe at the time of Pesach have not ripened, the extra month is added, even if the equinox falls before the 16th of Nisan. If spring arrived in two out of three of the districts mentioned above, the extra month was not added.
(c) Besides the principal signs mentioned above, the Chachamim list four more reasons to add an extra month, based upon necessity. 1. If the roads are impassable and will prevent the Diaspora Jews from getting to the Beis ha'Mikdash in time for the Pesach sacrifice. 2. If bridges are washed out and the journey is impossible or dangerous for the Diaspora Jews. 3. If the Diaspora Jews have started their journey, but will not arrive in Yerushalayim on time. 4. If the ovens that were meant to be used for roasting the Pesach sacrifices in Yerushalayim were destroyed during the rainy season, and there are no substitutes for them. (RAMBAM Hilchos Kidush ha'Chodesh 4:1-5)

7) [line 8] MAISEI ASA DARA - they (the men of Yericho) bring a moist myrtle
8) [line 9] V'SHICHRA D'DAFNA - and beer made from the laurel berry (O.F. lor - laurel, O.F. baies - the berries or fruit of the laurel)

9) [line 9] V'KIMCHA D'SA'AREI D'RAMI B'MANA - and barley flour that is placed in a utensil
10) [line 9] D'LO CHALFEI ALEI ARBE'IN YOMIN - that has not had 40 days pass [since it was ground]
11) [line 10] U'MARTECHEI LEHU - and they boil them
12) [line 10] V'SHADU LEHU L'DIKLA B'LIBEI - and they pour them into the heart (the sap-wood, which is located only in the central trunk) of the palm tree

13) [line 11] TZAVI - dries up
14) [line 11] L'ALTAR - immediately
15) [line 12] MANCHEI KUFRA DICHRA L'NEKUVTA - they place (graft) a young branch from a date palm onto another date palm; alt. they place (graft) a young branch from a male date palm onto a female date palm

16) [line 19] KETZ HA'YAMIN - (lit. the end of days) the period of time when HaSh-m will fight for Benei Yisrael again, which is at the end of the Diaspora (the period when HaSh-m's "hand" has been turned back from fighting the enemy, as it is written "Heshiv Achor Yemino Mipnei Oyev" - Eichah 2:3)

17) [line 25] B'CHASHAI - quietly (discreetly)
18) [line 26] TZIKEI KEDEIRAH - (O.F. arsedure - meat seasoned with spices) a spicy, tasty dish, considered poor-man's food

19) [line 26] IM TOMAR - if she says [that she wants the Tzikei Kedeirah]
20) [line 27] L'HAVI [LAH] B'CHASHAI - to bring it [to her] secretly, discreetly
21) [line 28] TAR'OMES HA'MININ - the seditious talk (lit. murmuring) of the heretics
22) [line 32] NESHER - fallen fruits
23) [line 33] SHENEI BATZORES - years of famine brought about by little or no rainfall, when some of the people are satiated and others are hungry (Avos 5:8)

*24*) [line 32] PORTZIN PIRTZOS - that is, they would break down the fence (during the week)
25a) [line 34] CHARUV - a carob tree
b) [line 34] SHIKMAH - a sycamore tree


26) [line 3] SAMI MI'KAN - remove from here [from the Beraisa]
27) [line 12] B'SHEL MACHBEDOS- [the dates that have fallen off and have been caught] in the *fan-shaped* branches that are located towards the top of the date-palm; the dates have fallen and are caught in the clusters of twigs that holds the dates

28) [line 14] B'SHEL BEIN HA'KEIFIN - [the dates that have fallen off and have been caught] among the lower branches that are *arched over*

29) [line 15] MUKTZOS (MUKTZAH)
(a) MUKTZAH - The word Muktzah literally means "set aside at the brink [of one's intentions for use]." The term is used to describe items that are set aside not to be used right now, such as wood stacked in a barn. In a broader sense, the word Muktzah includes anything that a person did not intend to use during Bein ha'Shemashos at the start of Shabbos (or Yom Tov), for whatever reason it may be.

(b) THE ARGUMENT OF THE TANA'IM - Rebbi Yehudah and Rebbi Shimon argue as to whether one may move or use on Shabbos items that fit into certain categories of Muktzah. There are at least six different categories of Muktzah over which Rebbi Yehudah and Rebbi Shimon disagree [1. Hiktzehu mi'Da'ato; 2. Nolad; 3. Muktzah Machmas Isur (also known as Migo d'Iskatza'i); 4. Muktzah Machmas Mi'us; 5. Keli she'Melachto Eino Ela l'Isur; 6. Muchan l'Adam Eino Muchan l'Kelavim.] On Shabbos, objects that fit into one of these categories may not be moved according to Rebbi Yehudah. There are other categories of Muktzah that may not be moved according to both Rebbi Yehudah and Rebbi Shimon [such as 1. Muktzah Machmas Gufo; 2. Huktzah l'Mitzvaso; 3. Davar she'Eino Ra'uy she'Decha'o b'Yadayim; 4. Davar he'Asur Bein ha'Shemashos she'Lo Chashav she'Yavo l'Yedei Heter b'Shabbos; 5. Muktzah Machmas Chisaron Kis.]

(a) See previous entry.
(b) It is important to note that there are two distinct types of Muktzah that may be included in the expression "Muchan l'Adam Lo Hevei Muchan li'Kelavim": 1. If the laws of Shabbos or Yom Tov prevent man from using an object. For example, on Shabbos, a live animal is not fit for human use since it is forbidden to slaughter an animal on Shabbos. Even though live animals are sometimes fed to dogs, since this animal is not fit for *humans* at present it is Muktzah (even according to Rebbi Shimon) and may not be fed to dogs. 2. If something happens to an object *on Shabbos* that makes it unfit for man, it may not even be fed to dogs, according to Rebbi Yehudah. (This is a form of Nolad -- see Background to Beitzah 33:12:c). For example, if an animal was alive before Yom Tov (and was fit for man, since he could slaughter and eat it on Yom Tov) and then died on Yom Tov, becoming unfit for man, Rebbi Yehudah prohibits feeding it to dogs. Rebbi Shimon argues and permits feeding it to dogs.

31) [line 30] OCHEL - a food
32) [line 31] NISHMAR - kept in one's possession (lit. guarded)
*33*) [line 31] LEKITASO K'ACHAS - it must be harvested in a single process, unlike the fig tree, the fruits of which ripen over an extended period of time. (This excludes not only the fig tree, but most other trees. In fact, only 8 trees are listed in the Mishnah as obligated in Pe'ah - TOSFOS Shabbos 68a DH ul'Bar)

34) [line 31] MACHNISO L'KIYUM - it is put into storage
*35*) [line 32] SEFICHEI SATIS V'KOTZAH - safflower (which produces a red dye) and woad (a plant that produces blue dye) which grew on their own from the remainder of the previous crop. The word "Sefichim" means "aftergrowth," i.e. that they grew by themselves and were not planted for harvesting this year. (RASHI Shabbos 68a - Setis usually grows this way, and is not planted year after year; TOSFOS Ibid DH Sefichei - The ruling of the Mishnah only pertains to the Sefichim of Setis, and not to Setis itself.)

36) [line 33] KEMEIHIN, PITRIYOS - types of boletes, such as mushrooms, morels and truffles
37) [line 34] ROSHEI LEFATOS - turnip tops
38) [line 36] KERUV - cabbage

39) [last line] KAFLOT - leek

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