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Pesachim 55

1) [line 2] LO CHAISHINAN L'YUHARA - we do not advise against doing certain acts that might be construed as haughtiness

2) [line 7] MUCHLEFES HA'SHITAH - the opinions have been mistakenly interchanged

3) [line 29] HA'MENAKESH - one who removes weeds from between stalks of grain
4) [line 29] V'NE'EKRAH V'YADO - and a stalk of grain was pulled out [with its roots] in his hand

5) [line 29] SHOSLAH - he [re]plants it
6a) [line 30] MEKOM HA'TIT - muddy ground
b) [line 30] MEKOM HA'GERID - dry ground
7) [line 31] HARKAVAH - a graft of a branch from one tree onto another tree
8) [line 35] HASHRASHAH - taking root
9) [line 39] UMANIYOS - skills, handicrafts, trades
10a) [line 39] CHAYATIN - tailors
b) [line 39] SAPARIM - barbers
c) [line 40] KOVSIN - clothes washers
d) [line 41] RATZ'ANIN - shoemakers

11) [line 45] TZALTZUL KATAN - (O.F. bendel) a small belt that is not wider than three strands of Shesi (warp) threads [Rashi has the Girsa, "Tziltzul"]

12) [line 45] SEVACHAH - (O.F. coife) head-dress, a covering for the head (RASHI to Shabbos 57)

13) [line 47] ZUTREI - small


14) [line 12] LO NAHAGU, LO - in a place where the custom is not to do Melachah on Erev Pesach

15) [line 13] SHE'LO L'TZORECH HA'MO'ED, LO, SHEMA MINAH - if the object is not needed for the Chag, it is prohibited [even to finish it]

16) [line 20] MOSHIVIN SHOVECHIN L'TARNEGOLIM - (a) it is permitted to place hens of chicken coops on eggs so that they will hatch (RASHI); (b) it permissible to fix a place for roosters and hens (ARUCH, MAGID MISHNAH at the end of Hilchos Yom Tov, 1st interpretation of the RAMBAM); [alt. the Girsa is only MOSHIVIN SHOVECHIN - it is permitted to place doves of dove-cotes on eggs so that they will hatch (RASHI)-- this Girsa appears more appropriate since the word "Shovechin" is usually found in the context of doves (TOSFOS YOM TOV)]

17a) [line 21] GORFIN MI'TACHAS RAGLEI VEHEMAH - it is permissible to clear away excrement from beneath an animal's feet and throw it onto a dung heap
b) [line 22] MESALKIN LA'TZEDADIN - it is permissible to move the excrement aside [but not remove it to the dung heap]

18) [line 23] OSOVEI MOSVINAN - we make hens (or doves) sit on eggs for the first time
19) [line 23] AHADUREI - to return a hen (or dove) to an egg on which it has already been sitting

20) [line 25] LO PARACH TZIMRA MINAH - the heat of the egg has not left it
21) [line 25] PASDA LAH BEI'EI LEGAMREI - the eggs have become unfit to be eaten
22) [line 34] BADIK LAN RAVA - Rava tested us
23) [line 39] KAD - jug, pitcher
24a) [line 39] KADAR - a potter
b) [line 39] ZAGAG - a glazier
c) [line 40] TZABA - a dyer

25) [line 43] MECHAVRESA KED'SHANINAN ME'IKARA - it is clear that the original answer is correct

26) [line 45] MARKIVIN DEKALIM - (O.F. enter - to graft) (a) they would graft a soft branch that sprouted in the previous year onto a fully grown palm tree (RASHI to Pesachim 56a, 1st explanation); (b) they would graft a branch of a male palm tree (that produces fruit) onto a female palm tree (that does not produce fruit) (RASHI to Pesachim 56a, 2nd explanation. However, see TOSFOS YOM TOV, RASHI to Eruvin 28b DH bed'Nischeni and MENACHEM MESHIV NEFESH here. According to the TIFERES YISRAEL, the female palm produces no fruit at all, while the male palm produces inferior fruit. When a male branch is grafted onto a female tree, it produces quality fruit.); (c) they would perform an extremely time-bound grafting procedure between the male palm (that produces inferior fruit) and the female palm (that produces successful fruit only after this procedure). If the process was not performed on the appropriate day, the fruits will not be successful. The Mishnah is referring to a case when the appropriate day was Erev Pesach. (ARUCH Erech Nesen)

27) [line 45] KORCHIN ES SHEMA - (lit. they would bind the reading of Keri'as Shema) (a) they would not pause between the verse, "Shema Yisrael," and the next verse, "v'Ahavta." (When saying the first verse, one is obligated to accept upon himself "Ol Malchus Shamayim", the yoke of the Heavenly Kingdom, which requires contemplation). (b) they would not say "Baruch Shem Kevod Malchuso..." in between these verses; (c) they *would* say "Baruch Shem Kevod Malchuso...," but they would say it out loud

28a) [last line] KOTZRIN - they would cut wheat (According to RASHI, the correct Girsa in the Mishnah is without this word)
b) [last line] GODSHIN - they would pile the wheat in heaps

29) [last line] HA'OMER (KETZIRAS HA'OMER) (a) There is a Mitzvah to bring the Korban ha'Omer on the second day of Pesach. A large quantity of barley is reaped after nightfall after the first day of Pesach. At this time the grain is still moist, and the process of extracting one Omer (approximately 2.5 or 4.3 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) of barley flour is extremely difficult. The flour is baked and offered as a Korban Minchah on the 16th of Nisan. It is also referred to as the Minchas Bikurim -- Vayikra 2:14-16).
(b) In addition, a lamb is offered as an Olah, as it states in Vayikra 23:12.
(c) The Korban ha'Omer is the first offering of the new grain of the year, and as such it removes the prohibition against eating from the new grain.

30) [last line] MATIRIN GAMAZIYOS SHEL HEKDESH - they permitted the use of the new branches that had grown on carob and sycamore trees of Hekdesh

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