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Pesachim 53

1) [line 1] MISHE'YEGARE'U - from when they grow to the size of a white bean
2) [line 1] MISHE'YANITZU - from when the flower starts to open
3) [line 2] MISHE'YOTZI'U - from when they produce fruit
4) [line 7] B'D'NISCHANEI KATZ - he cut down a male date palm, the inferior fruit of which never ripens on the tree

5) [line 8] DALIYOS - (O.F. treilles = trellises, the lattice-work or poles upon which grapes grow) [the grapes of] the vine-arbors

6) [line 10] TEKO'A - a city located near Beis Lechem that was known for its abundant production of olive oil (Menachos 85b) (see RADAK to Shmuel II 20:26)

7) [line 11] GUSH CHALAV - a city in the Galilee, in the portion of Asher, known for its abundant production of olive oil, which "flowed forth [from Gush Chalav] as if from a spring" (Menachos 85b)

8a) [line 12] NOFO - its branches
b) [line 12] IKARO - its base
9) [line 12] ROVA - a quarter [Kav], approximately 0.345 or 0.6 liter, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions

10a) [line 13] GREGEROS - dried figs
b) [line 13] PAGEI - the [small] figs
c) [line 13] BEIS HINI- a place in Eretz Yisrael, also known as Beisyoni or Beis Oni (Eruvin 28b)

11) [line 15] AHINEI D'TOVINA - the [small] dates of Tovina, also known as Toveisa (Tosefta Shevi'is 7:11, according to the Girsa of the Vilna Ga'on)

12) [line 24] MILIN - the product of a certain species of oak tree, either gall-nuts (quercus infectoria) or acorns (quercus aegilops), that are used as tanning material

13) [line 28] BIKURIM
(a) The Mitzvah of Bikurim consists of bringing the first fruits to emerge in one's field every year to the Kohanim in the Beis ha'Mikdash. A Kohen takes the basket of fruit and places it at the southeastern corner of the altar's base (Mishna Bikurim 2:3). The owner recites a specified declaration (Devarim 26:3,5-10), and the fruits are then given to the Kohen (Bikurim 3:8; 2:11).
(b) The Mitzvah of Bikurim applies only to the seven species with which the land of Eretz Yisrael is blessed (Devarim 8:8) -- wheat, barley, grapes, figs, pomegranates, olives and dates (Bikurim 3:6). (Although many other types of produce now grow in Eretz Yisrael, these are the *only* species of produce truly indigenous to Israel. Other, "immigrant," species can be destroyed by drought or harsh weather, but these 7 species will always be part of the land -- heard once from a leading botanist - MK.)
(c) In certain instances, the owner only brings the fruit, without reciting the declaration (Mevi v'Eino Korei). For example, if he brings them between Sukos and Chanukah, he does not recite the verses (see Gemara Pesachim 36b and Rashi there).

(a) If a Jew is found murdered in a field (in Israel) and it is not known who the murderer is, the Torah requires that an Eglah Arufah be brought in order to atone for the blood that was spilled (Devarim 21:1).
(b) Five elders of the Beis Din of the Lishkas ha'Gazis (the Jewish "supreme court") measure the distance between the dead body and the cities around it to determine which city is closest to it.
(c) The elders of the city that is closest to the corpse must bring a female calf that has never been worked to a Nachal Eisan (a swiftly flowing stream - RAMBAM Hilchos Rotze'ach 9:2; a valley with tough soil - RASHI). They strike it on the back of its neck (Arifah) with a cleaver, severing its spinal column, gullet and windpipe.
(d) The elders of the closest city then wash their hands there and say, "Our hands have not spilled this blood, and our eyes did not see [the murder]." (Devarim 21:7) This includes a proclamation that the dead man was not sent away from the city without the proper food for his journey or the proper accompaniment. The Kohanim that are present say, "Atone for Your people Yisrael whom You have redeemed, HaSh-m, and do not place [the guilt for] innocent blood in the midst of Your people Yisrael" (ibid. 21:8). After this procedure, HaSh-m will grant atonement for the innocent blood that was spilled (RAMBAM Hilchos Rotze'ach 9:3).

15) [line 30] MEKACH U'MIMKAR - buying and selling
16a) [line 31] BEHEMAH DAKAH - small domesticated animals such as sheep and goats
b) [line 33] BEHEMAH GASAH - large domesticated animals such as cattle and donkeys

(a) The Chachamim decreed not to sell a beast of burden to a non-Jew. The reason for this prohibition is that if one could sell his animal to a non-Jew, he may be tempted to lend or rent his animal to the non-Jew, who would then work with a Jew's animal on Shabbos. This is prohibited, as it states in Shmos (20:10) "Lo Sa'aseh Chol Melachah ... u'Vehemtecha." ("Do not do any work [on Shabbos] ... [nor] your animals.")
(b) Another reason given for this decree is that the Jew might start the sale a few minutes before Shabbos and call to the loaded animal on Shabbos to show the non-Jew how well it works. By doing so he would transgress the prohibition of Mechamer on Shabbos (Avodah Zarah 15a).

18a) [line 33] AGALIM - calves
b) [line 33] SEYACHIN - young donkeys
19) [line 39] GEDAYIM MEKULASIN - kid-goats roasted in their entirety (like the Korban Pesach)


If a person makes a donation or a pledge in an unusual way, he subconsciously does not really intend to donate anything after all. Therefore the Chachamim rule that if a person said he would give "half the Erech of a vessel" to Hekdesh, he gives nothing.

21) [line 11] AF BI'GEMAR DEVARAV ADAM NITPAS/TEFOS LASHON RISHON TEFOS LASHON RISHON - "The first statement is the only one that we regard seriously." That is, if a person says two consecutive statements that have contradictory Halachic ramifications, yet he expresses no desire to rescind the first of the two, we assume that he decided to add the second statement only *after* having pronounced the first. Therefore, the first statement remains valid, and the second one is ignored.

The dissenting opinion holds that "Af bi'Gmar Dvarav Adam Nitfas," i.e. the person originally *intended* to make *both* statements, thinking that they were not Halachically contradictory. According to this opinion, both statements are valid and we find some compromise between the two.

22a) [line 16] GAVRA RABA - a great person, i.e. a Torah scholar
b) [line 16] BA'AL EGROFIN - a bandit or warlord
23) [line 22] "UV'MISH'AROSECHA" - "and in your kneeding troughs" (Shemos 7:28)
24) [line 26] MATIL MELAI L'CHIS SHEL TALMIDEI CHACHAMIM - a person who gives a Talmid Chacham merchandise with which to do business for half of the profit (Rashi Shabbos 63a)

25) [line 38] (YASHER) [YEYASHER] - well-said!
26) [line 40] VADAI D'AMRISU - You most certainly said ...
27) [line 41] CHAZA BEI ... BISHUS - he (Ula) looked at him (Rabah bar bar Chanah) angrily
28) [last line] ADA TEHEI - *this* is [a correct citation of Rebbi Yochanan]

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